APPENDIX B
Percentage of Reported Foodborne-Disease Outbreaks Associated With Identified Contributing Factorsa

Contributing factors (more than one contributing factor might be reported per outbreak)

%

Allowing foods to remain at room or warm outdoor temperature for several hours

29

Bare-handed contact by handler/worker/preparer

25

Inadequate cleaning of processing/preparation equipment/utensils - leads to contamination of vehicle

22

Handling by an infected person or carrier of pathogen

20

Inadequate cold-holding temperatures

19

Crosscontamination from raw ingredient of animal origin

12

Insufficient time and/or temperature during initial cooking/heat processing

12

Raw product/ingredient contaminated by pathogens from animal or environment

11

Slow cooling

11

Insufficient time and/or temperature during hot holding

10

Other source of contamination

9

Preparing foods a half day or more before serving

8

Insufficient time and/or temperature during reheating

8

Glove-handed contact by handler/worker/preparer

6

Storage in contaminated environment - leads to contamination of vehicle

6

Toxic substance part of tissue

5

Other process failures that permit the agent to survive

5

Ingestion of contaminated raw products

4

Inadequate thawing of frozen products

2

Insufficient thawing, followed by insufficient cooking

1

(Additional contributing factors contributed to <1% of outbreaks)

 

aAdapted from CDC. 2006. Surveillance for Foodborne-Disease Outbreaks—United States, 1998–2002. MMWR. 55 (SS10):1–34. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5510a1.htm. Accessed January 26, 2009.



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APPENDIX B Percentage of Reported Foodborne-Disease Outbreaks Associated With Identified Contributing Factorsa Contributing factors (more than one contributing factor might be reported per outbreak) % Allowing foods to remain at room or warm outdoor temperature for several hours 29 Bare-handed contact by handler/worker/preparer 25 Inadequate cleaning of processing/preparation equipment/utensils - leads to 22 contamination of vehicle Handling by an infected person or carrier of pathogen 20 Inadequate cold-holding temperatures 19 Crosscontamination from raw ingredient of animal origin 12 Insufficient time and/or temperature during initial cooking/heat processing 12 Raw product/ingredient contaminated by pathogens from animal or environment 11 Slow cooling 11 Insufficient time and/or temperature during hot holding 10 Other source of contamination 9 Preparing foods a half day or more before serving 8 Insufficient time and/or temperature during reheating 8 Glove-handed contact by handler/ worker/ preparer 6 Storage in contaminated environment - leads to contamination of vehicle 6 Toxic substance part of tissue 5 Other process failures that permit the agent to survive 5 Ingestion of contaminated raw products 4 Inadequate thawing of frozen products 2 Insufficient thawing, followed by insufficient cooking 1 (Additional contributing factors contributed to <1% of outbreaks) a Adapted from CDC. 2006. Surveillance for Foodborne-Disease Outbreaks—United States, 1998–2002. MMWR. 55 (SS10):1–34. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5510a1.htm. Accessed January 26, 2009. 23