problems to students. Only one was able to identify the correct formula for solving one of the problems.

INSPIRES (INcreasing Student Participation, Interest and Recruitment in Engineering & Science), a small-scale professional-development program at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, relies on engineering faculty to lead some activities. The program leaders note, however, that large numbers of engineering faculty might not be able to participate in such ventures because of their workloads and because of typical university reward structures (Ross and Bayles, 2007). More systemic problems, such as a lack of understanding of program content and learning progressions, may also interfere with the effectiveness of professional-development programs for K–12 teachers of engineering (Hailey et al., 2008).

REFERENCES

Asunda, P. and R. Hill. 2007. Critical features of engineering design in technology education. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education 44(1): 25–48.

Ball, D.L., M.H. Thames, and G. Phelps. 2008. Content Knowledge for Teaching: What Makes It Special? Presented at the National Symposium on Professional Development for Engineering and Technology Education, Dallas, Texas, February 11–13, 2007. Available online at www.conferences.ilstu.edu/NSA/homepage.html (accessed May 23, 2008).

Bandura, A., W.H. Freeman, and R. Lightsey. 1999. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy 13(2): 158–166.

Benenson, G., and J. L. Neujahr. 2007. Unraveling a Knotty Design Challenge: PD for Engineering K-12. Paper presented at a workshop of the NAE/NRC Committee on K–12 Engineering Education, Washington, D.C., October 22, 2007. Unpublished.

Cunningham, C. 2007. Elementary Teacher Professional Development in Engineering: Lessons Learned from Engineering is Elementary. Paper resented at a workshop of the NAE/NRC Committee on Engineering Education, Washington, D.C., October 22, 2007. Unpublished.

Daugherty, J.L., and R.L. Custer. Unpublished. Engineering-Oriented Professional Development for Secondary Level Teachers: A Multiple Case Study Analysis. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana.

DeMiranda, M. 2008. K-12 Engineering Education Workshop. Paper presented at a workshop of the NAE/NRC Committee on K–12 Engineering Education, Washington, D.C., February 25, 2008. Unpublished.

Diefes-Dux, H and D. Duncan. 2007. Adapting Engineering is Elementary Professional Development to Encourage Open-Ended Mathematical Modeling. Paper presented at a workshop of the NAE/NRC Committee on K–12 Engineering Education, Washington, D.C., October 22, 2007. Unpublished.



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