Index

(Page numbers in italic refer to boxed text not referenced in text.)

A

Abstraction, 136

America COMPETES Act, 15

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 15, 165

American Institute of Chemical Engineering, 31

American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 3031

American Institute of Mining Engineers, 31

American Society for Engineering Education, 33

recommendations for, 9, 10, 160

American Society of Civil Engineers, 30

American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 30

Analysis, in design process, 8386

Apprenticeship training, 30

Army Corps of Engineers, 29

B

Berggren, David, 170172

Boise State University, 110111

Boston Museum of Science, 53

Building Math, 79, 8384, 85, 9293, 99

Building Structures with Young Children, 87, 92, 99

C

California State University, 111112

Cal Teach, 111112

Center for Innovation in Engineering and Science Education, 53

Challenge-based environments, 54

Children Designing and Engineering, 76, 81, 8384, 87, 92, 98

Chunking strategy, 129

City Technology, 81, 84, 85, 86, 91, 93, 100, 102

Cognitive load theory, 129

Cognitive processes



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Index (Page numbers in italic refer to boxed text not B referenced in text.) Berggren, David, 170–172 Boise State University, 110–111 Boston Museum of Science, 53 A Building Math, 79, 83–84, 85, 92–93, Abstraction, 136 99 America COMPETES Act, 15 Building Structures with Young Children, American Association for the Advancement 87, 92, 99 of Science, 15, 165 American Institute of Chemical Engineering, 31 C American Institute of Electrical Engineers, California State University, 111–112 30–31 Cal Teach, 111–112 American Institute of Mining Engineers, 31 Center for Innovation in Engineering and American Society for Engineering Science Education, 53 Education, 33 Challenge-based environments, 54 recommendations for, 9, 10, 160 Children Designing and Engineering, 76, American Society of Civil Engineers, 30 81, 83–84, 87, 92, 98 American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Chunking strategy, 129 30 City Technology, 81, 84, 85, 86, 91, 93, 100, Analysis, in design process, 83–86 102 Apprenticeship training, 30 Cognitive load theory, 129 Army Corps of Engineers, 29 Cognitive processes 211

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212 INDEX Core engineering concepts and skills, abstraction, 136 22–23, 41–43, 76–77, 119–121 benefits of engineering education, 53 drawing and representing, 133–137 critical thinking, 93 effective teaching strategies, 140–142 current understanding of engineering experimenting and testing, 137–141 education, 140–141 necessary skills, 133 design process approach to problem- See also Optimization of design; solving, 4, 37, 39–41 Systems thinking engineering habits of mind, 5–6, 152 Creativity, 5, 152 experimentation and testing, 137–140 Credentialing for engineering education, 9 implications for engineering education, Critical thinking, 93 23 Cunningham, Christine, 112 multivariable analysis, 128–130, 138 Curricula, K–12 engineering optimization concepts, student capacity beads and thread model, 76–77 for understanding, 128 benefits of engineering instruction recognition of emergent properties, in math and science achievement, 125–127 53–55 role of modeling, 88 case studies, 169–179 scientific inquiry, 39–41 current shortcomings, 7–8, 20, 155–156 structure-behavior-function analysis, data sources, 72–73 122–125 demographic diversity in, 101–103, 161 systems thinking, 5, 42, 91–92 descriptive summaries of, 74, 75–76 systems thinking, student capacity for, design process in, 82–92 122–127 educational goals, 92–94 trade-offs, student capacity to implementation and costs, 95–99 understand, 130–133 in-depth reviews of, 74–76 Coherence in educational systems, 12, mathematics content, 77–80 163–164 modeling in, 87 Collaboration optimization in, 89 in current engineering curricula, 85 programs reviewed, 74, 94–95 as engineering habit of mind, 5, 152 recommendations for diversity in engineering profession, 31 promotion, 10, 161 in research and development, 20 recommendations for research, 7, shortcomings of current STEM 154–155 education, 20 research objectives, 3, 21, 71 College of New Jersey, 110 science content, 80–81 Colorado State University, 110 state-mandated standards, 163 Communication STEM connections in, 8, 157 as engineering habit of mind, 5, 152 strategies for incorporating engineering goals of education for engineering education, 10–11, 162–164 profession, 31 systems concepts in, 91–92 Computer-aided design, 133 teaching approaches with, 94, 99–101 Computer modeling, 87 technology content, 82 Constraints influencing design, 25, 38, trade-offs in, 89–90 39–40, 43, 86–87 variety of programs, 76

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INDEX 213 D E Decentralized thinking, 126 Economic analysis, 85 Denver School of Science and Technology, Emergent properties, 125–127 175–179 Engineering is Elementary, 53, 76, 80, 81, Department of Education, U.S., 15, 52 83–84, 85, 87, 91, 93, 98, 99, 100, 101 recommendations for, 8–9, 13, 158 Engineering Our Future New Jersey, 51–52, Design and Discovery curriculum, 76, 81, 56 84, 85, 87, 91, 100, 101, 102 Engineering profession Design-Based Science curriculum, 54–55 challenges for, in 21st century, 36, 37 Designing for Tomorrow, 84, 86, 92, 93, curricula designed as preparation for, 100–101, 102 93 Design process definition and scope of activities, 27–28 analysis in, 83–86 demographics, 33, 34 benefits of instruction in, 56–57 design process approach to problem- characteristics, 4, 38, 40–41, 151 solving, 4, 37–41 cognitive components, 37 evolution of education and training for, current K–12 engineering curricula, 29–30, 31–33 82–92 future challenges and opportunities, definition for engineers, 38 44–45 economic considerations, 85 habits of mind, 5–6, 152 education benchmarks, 61 historical origins and development, effective teaching strategies, 141–142 28–31 emphasis on, in engineering education, international comparisons, 34–36 4, 151 international competition, 44–45 experimentation and testing, 137–140 K–12 engineering education promoting modeling in, 42, 87–88, 134 interest in, 57–60 rules and principles, 38 predictive analysis in, 42–43 scientific method and, 39–41 professional societies, 30–31 as social enterprise, 120 public perception and understanding STEM education and, 8–9, 151–152 of, 55–56 steps, 38–39, 120 role of, 36 See also Constraints influencing design; science and mathematics in, 43–44 Optimization of design; Systems systems thinking in, 42 thinking use of modeling in, 42 Discover Engineering summer camp, workforce diversity, 10, 34, 44, 161 58–59 Engineering Projects in Community Diversity in engineering education and Service, 171 workforce Engineering technology programs, 34 current state, 10, 34, 44, 160 Engineering the Future, 78, 81, 85, 100, 101 curricula design to promote, 101–103 Ethical thinking, 5–6, 152 rationale for promoting, 161 Experimentation and testing, 137–140 recommendations for, 10, 160 Exploded views, 133 strategies for promoting, 161 Exploring Design and Engineering, 93 trends, 44 Drawing and representing, 133–137

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214 INDEX International comparisons F engineering workforce, 34–36 Failure analysis, 85–86, 92 K–12 engineering curricula, 72 Full Option Science System, 78, 90, 91, 98, math and science education, 17–18, 52 101 pre-university engineering education, Functional decomposition, 129–130 115–118 International Technology Education Association, 18, 32, 33, 61, 163 G Introduction to Engineering Design, 83–84 Invention, Innovation, and Inquiry, 86, Gateway to Technology, 76, 81, 83–84, 86, 90, 93 87, 88, 90, 93, 101–102 K H K–12 engineering education Habits of mind, engineering, 5–6, 152 benefits, 1, 23, 49–51 Heffron, Mark, 177 case studies, 169–179 Heffron, Terry, 177 challenges to effective implementation, High Tech High, 169–172 149 core concepts, 22–23, 41–43, 76–77, 119–121 I current implementation, 1, 2, 6, 20, Impact of engineering education initiatives 149–150, 152–153 current understanding, 6–7, 154 curricula. See Curricula, K–12 improved learning in math and science, engineering 51–55, 154 design emphasis, 4–5 increased awareness of engineering development of drawing and tasks and profession, 55–56 representing skills, 133–137 increased technological literacy, 60–62 effective teaching strategies, 140–142 limitations of current data on, 63–64 full integration in STEM education, 11, potential benefits, 1, 23 49–51 13, 162, 164–167 recommendations for research, 7, future prospects, 6, 154, 161–162, 167 154–155 goals, 3, 5–6, 45 research objectives, 3 grade-level benchmarks, 61 student interest in engineering careers, impact. See Impact of engineering 57–60 education initiatives See also Learning outcomes implications for post-secondary Industrial arts, 32, 33 education, 164 Industrial design, 88 increased awareness of engineering Infinity Project, 76, 79–80, 83, 87–88, 91, tasks and profession through, 55–56 92, 93, 99–100, 102 increased technological literacy as result Insights, 93 of, 60–62 INSPIRES, 113 informal activities, 72 Integrated Mathematics, Science, and international comparison of programs, Technology, 53 115–118

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INDEX 215 promoting engineering habits of mind, math and science achievement 5–6, 152 enhanced by, 51–55, 154 recommendations for research, 7, methodology for assessing current state 154–155 of, 2, 22 research goals, 119–120 objectives of research on, 3, 21–22, student capacity for multivariable 24–26 analysis, 128–130, 138 origins, 6 student capacity for systems thinking, principles of, 4–6, 151–152 122–127 in promoting engineering careers, technology education goals, 18 57–60 understanding of trade-offs, 130–133 recommendations for diversity See also Impact of engineering promotion, 10, 161 education initiatives recommendations for research, 7, 8–9, Legacy cycles, 54 12, 154–155, 158, 164, 166 Lesley University, 111 research needs, 2, 3–4, 7, 20–21, 71 scope, 6, 152–154 shortcomings of research base, 63–64 M standards and models of implementation, 2, 12, 20, 156 Making representations, 135–136 STEM interaction, 2, 3, 5, 8–9, 150, Material World Modules, 79, 80, 81, 85, 93, 156–159 98, 100 strategies for implementation, 10–11, Mathematical modeling, 42–43, 80, 87–88 162–164 to understand trade-offs, 131 student engagement and learning, 119, Mathematics instruction 120 benefits of engineering education in, technical education and, 33 51–55, 56–57, 154, 157 See also Curricula, K–12 engineering; current concerns, 15–18 Learning outcomes in engineering education, 31, 77–80, Kurtz, Bill, 176 151–152, 157 international comparison, 118 principles of engineering education L and, 5 scope, 17, 77 Learning-by-design, 140 See also STEM education Learning outcomes Mathematizing, 130 current concerns, 16–18 Math Out of the Box, 54 current understanding of, 119 Memory development of drawing and cognitive load theory, 129 representing skills, 133–137 strategies for multivariable analysis, development of skills for 129–130 experimentation and testing, Military engineering, 29–30 137–140 Minorities engineering skills, 133 benefits of engineering instruction goals for STEM education, 13 in math and science achievement, goals of K–12 engineering education, 3, 53–54 22

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216 INDEX curricula design to promote P engineering among, 101 PLTW. See Project Lead the Way in engineering workforce, 10, 34, 44 Post-secondary education reform, 164 limitations of current research on Predictive analysis, 42–43 engineering education, 63–64 Principles of K–12 engineering education, recommendations for curricula design, 4–6, 151–152 10, 161 Problem-based learning, 140 Modeling, engineering concept of Professional development for teachers in current curricula, 87–88 characteristics of successful programs, to enhance understanding of structure- 104–105 behavior-function, 124–125 current programs and utilization, 1, 6, role of, 42, 87, 137–138 9, 103–112, 153, 159–160 role of mathematics in, 42, 157 future challenges, 164 skills development, 134, 135, 137 importance of, in K–12 engineering teaching strategies, 141–142 education, 71–72 Models and Designs, 79, 101–102 in-service programs, 104–105, 159 Multivariable analysis, 128–130, 138 obstacles to, 112–113 pre-service initiatives, 105–112, 159 recommendations for improving, 9–10, N 12, 160 National Academies, 15, 18 Project Lead the Way (PLTW), 51, 59, 76, National Academy of Engineering, 78–79, 93, 95–98, 102–103, 110, 170. 36, 37 See also Gateway to Technology National Assessment Governing Board, 62 Public perception and understanding National Assessment of Education of engineering profession, 55–56 Progress, 52, 62 National Center for Engineering and Technology Education, 10, 104–105 R National Science Board, 15 Representations, 42, 135–137 National Science Foundation, 16 Reverse engineering, 91–92 recommendations for, 8–9, 13, Rising Above the Gathering Storm: 158, 166 Energizing and Employing America No Child Left Behind Act, 18, 163 for a Brighter Economic Future, 18 Runkle, John D., 32 Ryerson University, 58 O Optimism, 5, 152 Optimization of design S in current curricula, 89 Sandlin, Rick, 173 definition, 43, 89, 127–128 Schemas, 129 engineering concepts in, 121, 128 Science, technology, engineering, and multivariable analysis in, 128–130 mathematics (STEM) education student capacity for learning, 128 benefits of K–12 engineering education, trade-offs in, 43, 89–90, 128, 130–133 1, 6–7, 150

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INDEX 217 STEM. See Science, technology, component subjects, 17 engineering, and mathematics conceptual evolution, 16 education current concerns, 2, 12–13, 15–16, 150, Stevens Institute of Technology, 53 166 Structure-behavior-function, 121, 122–125 definition of STEM literacy, 13, 166 Summer Bridging Program, 60 full integration of engineering in, 11, Sustainable design, 36 13, 162, 164–167 Systems thinking future prospects, 14, 167 current curricula design, 91–92 interaction with K–12 engineering definition, 42, 91 education, 2, 3, 5, 8–9, 150, 151–152, emergent properties framework, 156–157 125–127 interconnections among component engineering concepts, 42, 121 subjects, 20 in engineering design process, 121–122 learning outcome goals, 13, 15 as engineering habit of mind, 5, 152 recommendations for research, 7, 8–9, structure-behavior-function 13, 154–155, 158–159, 164, 166 framework, 121, 122–125 teacher training for, 111–112 student capacity for, 122–127 Science education benefits of engineering education in, 51–55, 56–57, 154 T current concerns, 15–18 in engineering education, 31, 80–81, Teaching 151–152, 157 classroom time for design activities, 141 international comparison, 118 cognitive strategies to enable principles of engineering education multivariable thinking, 128–130 and, 5 content knowledge for, 103 scope, 17, 80 curricula design and, 94, 99–101 See also STEM education to develop drawing and representing Science for All Americans, 40–41 skills, 134–137 Scientific method, 39–41, 137–138 effective strategies in engineering Siloed teaching, 12–13, 20, 167 education, 140–142 Sketching, to facilitate multivariable engineering presented as applied analysis, 130 science, 119 Specifications, design, 38, 43 to enhance recognition of emergent Sputnik era, 31 properties, 127 Stand-alone engineering courses, 11, 162 to enhance skills for experimentation Standards for Technological Literacy: and testing, 138–140 Content for the Study of Technology, to enhance understanding of structure- 18, 32, 38, 61, 159 behavior-function, 124–125 Standards of instruction for engineering to enhance understanding of trade-offs, education 131–132 current shortcomings, 2, 20, 156 importance of, in K–12 engineering state mandates, 163 education, 71–72 strategies for developing, 163–164 iterative modeling, 141–142 StarLogo, 125–126 sequencing of instruction, 142 State-mandated education standards, 163

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218 INDEX Trade-offs, in design process, 43, 89–90, teacher understanding of engineering 128, 130–133 concepts, 112–113 Trends in International Mathematics and See also Curricula, K–12 engineering; Science Study, 17–18 Learning outcomes; Professional development for teachers Technically Speaking: Why All Americans U Need to Know More About Technology, 60 University of California, 111–112 Technicians, engineering, 34 University of Texas, 112 Technologists, engineering, 34 US FIRST, 172 Technology education UTeach, 112 civic responsibility and, 60 current implementation, 2, 9, 18–19 in current K–12 engineering curricula, W 82, 158 current shortcomings, 18–19 Walden University, 111 in engineering education, 151–152, Women 158–159 benefits of engineering instruction engineering instruction in, 32–33, in math and science achievement, 158–159 53–54 goals, 18 curricula design to promote increased technological literacy as result engineering among, 101–103, 160 of engineering instruction, 60–62 in engineering workforce, 10, 34, 44 international comparison, 118 interest in engineering careers, 58–59 principles of engineering education limitations of current research on and, 5 engineering education, 63–64 scope, 17, 18, 19 recommendations for curricula design, teachers, 61 160 See also STEM education Woodward, Calvin M., 31–32 Tech Tally: Approaches to Assessing A World in Motion, 77–78, 79, 81, 83, 85, Technological Literacy, 62 87, 89–90, 92, 93, 98, 101–102 TERC, 111 Texarkana Independent School District, 173–175 Y Texas A&M University, 173–175 Young Scientist Series, 81, 83–84, 90, 99