500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This project was supported by the Department of Energy under Award No. DE-FG02-06ER46271 and the National Science Foundation under Award No. 0551196. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-13800-0

International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-13800-0

Cover: The technique of x-ray diffraction has long been one of the primary tools used to determine the atomic and molecular structures of crystalline materials and films. The diffraction pattern shown on the left is of the molecular compound N-(p-chlorobenzylidene)-p-chloroaniline, and the crystal structure associated with that pattern is shown in the background. Data for figures courtesy of Richard Welberry, Eric Chan, and Aidan Heerdegen (Australian National University) and Peter Chupas (Argonne National Laboratory); work performed at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory.

Additional copies of this report are available from the

National Academies Press,

500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet,; and the Board on Physics and Astronomy, National Research Council, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001; Internet,

Copyright 2009 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement