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Appendix B Committee Biographies Thomas R. Pickering, M.A. (Co-Chair) retired from the State Department as Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs. In a diplomatic career with service in each of the major continents, Ambassador Pickering reached the rank of Career Ambassador, the highest in the U.S. Foreign Service. He served as U.S. Ambas - sador to the Russian Federation, India, Israel, El Salvador; Nigeria, and Jordan. He also was the U.S. Ambassador and Representative to the United Nations in New York, where he led the U.S. effort to build a coalition in the UN Security Council during and after the first Gulf War. He has held additional positions in Tanzania, Geneva, and Washington, including as Assistant Secretary of State for the Bureau of Oceans, Environmental and Scientific Affairs and as Executive Secretary of the Department and Special Assistant to Secretaries of State Wil - liam P. Rogers and Henry A. Kissinger. After retiring from the State Department in 2000, Ambassador Pickering joined The Boeing Company as Senior Vice President International Relations and member of the Executive Council, where he was responsible for the Company’s relations with foreign governments and the globalization of Boeing. Ambassador Pickering holds a B.A. from Bowdoin College, an M.A.L.D. from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, and a second M.A. from the University of Melbourne in Australia, where he studied under a Fulbright Scholarship. He speaks French, Spanish, and Swahili fluently and also is proficient in Arabic, Hebrew, and Russian. Harold Varmus, M.D. (Co-Chair) is the President of the Memorial Sloan- Kettering Cancer Center in New York City. Before his current position, Dr. Varmus served as the Director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) as appointed by President Bill Clinton. His scientific training occurred first as a Public Health 

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 THE U.S. COMMITMENT TO GLOBAL HEALTH Service officer at the NIH, where he studied bacterial gene expression with Ira Pastan, and then as a post-doctoral fellow with J. Michael Bishop at the Uni - versity of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Much of his scientific work was conducted during 23 years as a faculty member at UCSF, where he, Bishop, and their co-workers demonstrated the cellular origins of the oncogene of a chicken retrovirus. For this work, Drs. Bishop and Varmus received the 1989 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Dr. Varmus majored in English literature at Amherst College and earned a master’s degree in English at Harvard University. A gradu- ate of Columbia University’s College of Physicians and Surgeons, he worked as a medical student in a hospital in India and served on the medical house staff at Columbia-Presbyterian Hospital. Dr. Varmus also serves as Chairman of the Scientific Board of the Gates Foundation Grand Challenges in Global Health and chairs the Advisory Committee for the Global Health Division; is a member of the Science Initiatives Group that oversees the Millennium Science Initiative; and is a co-founder and Chairman of the Board of the Public Library of Science. Nancy Kassebaum Baker represented Kansas in the U.S. Senate from 1978 to 1997. She was the first woman to serve in the Senate who had not served in the House of Representatives or been appointed to fill out the term of a deceased husband. She devoted much of her attention in the Senate to education, health care, childcare, and foreign aid. She was the first woman to chair a major Senate committee, heading the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. She was also chair of the Commerce Committee’s Aviation Subcommittee and the Foreign Relations Committee’s African Subcommittee. She was a cosponsor with Senator Edward Kennedy of the Health Insurance Reform Act, which guaranteed porta- bility of health care. She also worked for improvements in Medicaid and was a strong supporter of family planning programs in the United States and abroad. Since leaving public office, Kassebaum Baker has continued to be involved in health issues, serving on the National Advisory Committee on Rural Health to the secretary of health and human services. In 2005, she served on Prime Minister Blair’s Commission for Africa. Senator Kassebaum Baker served on the board of trustees of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Kaiser Family Founda - tion and serves on the advisory board of the Partnership for a Secure America. Paulo M. Buss, M.A., M.D., is the Director of Fundação Oswaldo in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He graduated from Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (1972) with a Master’s Degree in Social Medicine from Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (1980). He is a specialist in Pediatrics (Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria, 1975) and Public Health (Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, ENSP, 1975). In 1979 he founded the Associação Brasileira de Pós-graduação em Saúde Coletiva (ABRASCO), Latin America‘s greatest public health scientific society, of which he was the first executive secretary from 1979 to 1983 and vice president between 2000 and 2003. Dr. Buss was president of

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 APPENDIX B the Associação Latino-americana e do Caribe de Educação em Saúde Pública (ALAESP) (1998-2000) and of the Federação Internacional de Cooperação entre Centros de Pesquisa em Sistemas e Serviços de Saúde (1990-1994). At the ENSP, Dr. Buss held offices as deputy-director (1985-1989) and director for two terms (1989-1992 and 1998-2000). He was vice president of Education and Informa- tion at Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (1992-1996). He represented Brazil in the World Health Organization’s Executive Council (from December 2004 to May 2007), nominated by the President of Brazil, and represents Fiocruz in the world net - works of the Health Research Institutes. Haile T. Debas, M.D., the Executive Director of UCSF Global Health Sciences, is recognized internationally for his contributions to academic medicine and is currently widely consulted on issues associated with global health. At UCSF, between 1993 and 2003, he served as Dean (Medicine) for 10 years, Vice Chan- cellor (Medical Affairs) for 6 years, and Chancellor for one year. A gastrointes - tinal surgeon by training, Dr. Debas is also the Maurice Galante Distinguished Professor of Surgery and chaired the UCSF Department of Surgery from 1986 to 2003. A native of Eritrea, he received his M.D. from McGill University and com- pleted his surgical training at the University of British Columbia. He was a mem - ber of the faculty of Surgery at the University of British Columbia (1971-1979), UCLA (1980-1985), and the University of Washington (1985-1987). Under Dr. Debas’s stewardship, the UCSF School of Medicine became a national model for medical education, an achievement for which he was recognized with the 2004 Abraham Flexner Award of the AAMC. His prescient grasp of the implications of fundamental changes in science led him to create several interdepartmental and interdisciplinary research centers that have been instrumental in reorganizing the scientific community at UCSF. He played a key role in developing UCSF’s new campus at Mission Bay. He has held leadership positions with numerous member- ship organizations and professional associations including serving as president of the American Surgical Association and chair of the Council of Deans of the AAMC. He has been a member of the Institute of Medicine since 1990, and is the current chair of the Membership Committee. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He currently serves on the United Nations’ Com- mission on HIV/AIDS and Governance in Africa and on the Committee on Sci - ence, Engineering, and Public Policy of the National Academy of Sciences. Mohamed T. El-Ashry, Ph.D., is a Senior Fellow at the United Nations Foun- dation. Prior to joining the foundation, Dr. El-Ashry served as Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Global Environment Facility (GEF). He served as the GEF Chairman between 1991 and 2002, and was appointed the first CEO and Chairman of the GEF in 1994. Dr. El-Ashry came to the GEF from the World Bank, where he was the Chief Environmental Advisor to the President and Direc- tor of the Environment Department. Prior to joining the World Bank, he served

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 THE U.S. COMMITMENT TO GLOBAL HEALTH as Senior Vice President of the World Resources Institute (WRI) and as Director of Environmental Quality with the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). Dr. El- Ashry received his Bachelor of Science degree with honors in 1959 from Cairo University and his doctorate degree in geology in 1966 from the University of Illinois. He has received numerous international awards and honors and is the author of three books and more than 200 papers. Maria Freire, Ph.D., is President of The Albert and Mary Lasker Founda- tion. Prior to her appointment at the Lasker Foundation, Dr. Freire was the Chief Executive Officer of the Global Alliance for TB Drug Development (TB Alliance). An internationally recognized expert in technology commercializa - tion, Dr. Freire directed the Office of Technology Transfer at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) from 1995 to 2001. Before her position at the NIH, Dr. Freire established and headed the Office of Technology Development at the University of Maryland at Baltimore and the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. Dr. Freire trained at the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia in Lima. She received a Ph.D. in biophysics from the University of Virginia and completed post-graduate work in immunology and virology at the University of Virginia and the University of Tennessee, respectively. Dr. Freire has been active on a number of national and international boards and committees. She is the recipient of numerous awards, including the HHS Secretary’s Award for Distinguished Service, the 1999 Arthur S. Flemming Award, and the 2002 Bayh-Dole Award. Helene Gayle, M.D., M.P.H., is President and CEO of CARE, an international relief and development organization. She worked at the CDC for 20 years in a variety of capacities, including the Director of CDC’s Washington Office and Director for the National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention. Dr. Gayle has served as the AIDS Coordinator and Chief of the HIV/AIDS Division for the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). She has also served as a health consultant to international agencies including the World Health Organization, UNICEF, the World Bank, and UNAIDS and has worked extensively in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Prior to assuming her current position, she was the Direc- tor of the HIV, TB and Reproductive Health Program for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Dr. Gayle has published numerous articles on public health, especially related to HIV/AIDS and has received many awards for her scientific and public health contributions. She attained the rank of Rear Admiral (Assistant Surgeon General) in the U.S. Public Health Service. Margaret Hamburg, M.D., is the Commissioner of the United States’ Food and Drug Administration. She previously served as Vice President for the Biological Program, and then as a Senior Scientist, for the Nuclear Threat Initiative. Before arriving at NTI, Dr. Hamburg was Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evalua- tion at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. She was the Com-

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 APPENDIX B missioner of Health for the City of New York and former Assistant Director of the Institute of Allergy & Infectious Diseases at the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Hamburg earned her doctorate from Harvard Medical School, and completed her training at the New York Hospital/Cornell University Medical Center. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies of Sci - ence, the Council on Foreign Relations, and is a fellow for the American Asso - ciation of the Advancement of Science. Dr. Hamburg also serves on a number of Boards, including the Rockefeller Foundation, Rockefeller University, The Trust for America’s Health, Doctors of the World, the National Health Museum, and Henry Schein, Inc. Very active within the National Academies, she serves on the IOM Council, chairs the IOM Board on Global Health, is co-chair of the Forum on Microbial Threats, and is a member of the Committee on International Security and Arms Control. J. Bryan Hehir, Th.D., M.A., is the Parker Gilbert Montgomery Professor of the Practice of Religion and Public Life. He is also the Secretary for Social Services and the President of Catholic Charities in the Archdiocese of Boston. Dr. Hehir earned an interdisciplinary doctorate degree from Harvard University in applied theology, combining the study of international relations and ethics. He served on the faculty of Georgetown University, first as a MacArthur Foundation Fellow (1984-1988) and then as the Joseph P. Kennedy Professor of Christian Ethics (1988 to 1992). In 1993, Dr. Hehir returned to Harvard Divinity School as a professor of the practice of religion and society and was appointed to Chair of the Executive committee in 1998. His research and writing focus on ethics and foreign policy and the role of religion in world politics and in American society. His writings include The Moral Measurement of War: A Tradition of Continuity and Change; Military Intervention and National Sovereignty; Catholicism and Democracy; and Social Values and Public Policy: A Contribution from a Reli- gious Tradition. Prabhat Jha, M.D., D.Phil., is the Canada Research Chair of Health and Devel- opment at the University of Toronto. He is also the founding director of the Centre for Global Health Research, St. Michael’s Hospital; professor in the Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto; research scholar at the McLaughlin Centre for Molecular Medicine; and professor extraordinaire at the Université de Lausanne, Switzerland. Prior to returning to the University of Toronto, Dr. Jha served as a senior scientist with the World Health Organiza- tion where he led the work on adult health issues in the Human Development Network. Dr. Jha is lead author of Curbing the Epidemic: Governments and the Economics of Tobacco Control and coeditor of Tobacco Control in Developing Countries. Both are among the most influential books on tobacco control. He is the principal investigator of the world’s largest prospective study of health, focusing on 1 million deaths in India. He also conducts studies of HIV transmis -

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0 THE U.S. COMMITMENT TO GLOBAL HEALTH sion in various countries, focusing on documenting the risk factors for the spread of HIV and interventions to prevent the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Dr. Jha has published widely on tobacco, HIV/AIDS, and health of the global poor. His awards include a Gold medal from the Poland Health Promotion Founda - tion (2000), the Top 40 Canadians under Age 40 Award (2004), and the Ontario Premier’s Research Excellence Award (2004). He holds an M.D. from the Univer- sity of Manitoba and a D. Phil. in epidemiology and public health from Oxford University, where he studied as a Rhodes Scholar. Jeffrey P. Koplan, M.D., M.P.H., is Vice President for Global Health and Direc- tor of the Global Health Institute of Emory University. From 1998 to 2002, Dr. Koplan served as the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prior to his appointment at the CDC, Dr. Koplan was President of the Prudential Center for Health Care Research. Dr. Koplan began his public health career in the early 1970s as one of the CDC’s Epidemic Intelligence Service Officers. Since then, he has worked on virtually every major public health issue, including infectious diseases such as smallpox and HIV/AIDS, environmental issues such as the Bhopal chemical disaster, and the health toll of tobacco and chronic diseases, both in the United States and around the globe. Dr. Koplan is a graduate of Yale College, the Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, and the Harvard School of Public Health. He is a Master of the American College of Physicians and was elected to membership in the IOM and serves on its Council. He has served on many advisory groups and consultancies in the United States and over- seas, and has written more than 200 scientific papers. Ruth Levine, Ph.D., is Vice President for Programs and Operations and Senior Fellow at the Center for Global Development (CGD), where she leads the Cen- ter’s work on global health policy. Dr. Levine has a doctorate in economic demography from Johns Hopkins University. She is a health economist with more than 15 years of experience designing and assessing the effects of social sector programs in Latin America, Eastern Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia. Before joining the CGD, Dr. Levine designed, supervised, and evaluated loans at the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank. Between 1997 and 1999, she served as the advisor on the social sectors in the office of the executive vice president of the Inter-American Development Bank. She has co-authored The Health of Women in Latin America and the Caribbean (World Bank, 2001) and Millions Saved: Proven Successes in Global Health (CGD, 2004, updated as Cases in Global Health: Millions Saved (Jones and Bartlett, 2007)). Afaf I. Meleis, Ph.D., R.N., F.A.A.N., is the Margaret Bond Simon Dean of Nurs- ing at the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, Professor of Nursing and Sociology, and Director of the School’s WHO Collaborating Center for Nursing and Midwifery Leadership. Dr. Meleis graduated Magna Cum Laude from the

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 APPENDIX B University of Alexandria (1961), earned an M.S. in nursing (1964), an M.A. in sociology (1966) and a Ph.D. in medical and social psychology (1968) from the University of California, Los Angeles. Prior to coming to Penn, she was a Profes - sor on the faculty at the University of California Los Angeles and the University of California San Francisco for 34 years. She is a Fellow of the American Acad - emy of Nursing, the Royal College of Nursing in the United Kingdom, and the College of Physicians of Philadelphia; a Trustee of the National Health Museum; and a Board Member of the Global Health Council, CARE (a global intervention group), and the Nurses Education Fund, Inc.; and a member of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholar National Advisory Committee. She is Council General of the International Council on Women’s Health Issues. Dr. Meleis is the recipient of numerous honors and awards, as well as honorary doc - torates and distinguished and honorary professorships around the world. Among her awards, in 1990, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak presented her the Medal of Excellence for professional and scholarly achievements. Dr. Meleis’ scholar- ship is focused on global health, immigrant and international health, women’s health, and on the theoretical development of the nursing discipline. She is the author of more than 150 articles in social sciences, nursing, and medical journals; 40 chapters; and numerous monographs, proceedings, and books. Nelson Sewankambo, MBChB, MMED, MSc, FRCP, is Dean of Medicine at Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda and Co-Principal Investigator (Co-PI) of the Rakai Health Sciences Program. Dr. Sewankambo was among the first scientists to publish data on AIDS in Africa and was instrumental in starting the AIDS Clinic at Mulago Hospital and he continues to be active in HIV/AIDS research. He was founding Director of the Clinical Epidemiology Unit, and a co- PI on the Canadian IDRC-funded behavioral and qualitative research on AIDS Prevention. Dr. Sewankambo has served on numerous local and international advisory boards including the Working Party on the Ethics of Clinical Research in Developing Countries of the Nuffield Council for Bioethics, The Joint Learning Initiative, the WHO African Advisory Committee on Health and Research Devel - opment, and the Board of Directors of the International Clinical Epidemiology Network. Dr. Sewankambo is also Chairman of the Infectious Diseases Institute Board, a member of Council of the Global Forum for Health Research and a Chair of Initiative for Strengthening Health Research Capacity in Africa. Bennett M. Shapiro, M.D., is a Partner at PureTech Ventures. He also Chairman of the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative-North America, and a Director of DNDi, the Mind and Life Institute, the Tricycle Foundation, and the Garrison Institute. Prior to this, he was Executive Vice President, Worldwide Licensing and External Research at Merck, where he directed all of Merck’s research relationships with the academic and industrial biomedical research community. He joined Merck in September of 1990 as Executive Vice President, Worldwide

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 THE U.S. COMMITMENT TO GLOBAL HEALTH Basic Research, Merck Research Laboratories. In this position he was responsible for all the basic and preclinical research activities at Merck worldwide. Earlier, he was Professor and Chairman of the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Washington. He is the author of over 120 papers on the molecular regula - tion of cellular behavior and the biochemical events that integrate the cascade of cellular activations at fertilization. Shapiro received his bachelor’s degree in chemistry from Dickinson College and his doctor’s degree in medicine from Jefferson Medical College. Following an Internship in Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania Hospital, he was a Research Associate at the NIH, then a Visiting Scientist at the Institut Pasteur in Paris, and returned to the NIH as Chief–Section on Cellular Differentiation in the Laboratory of Biochemistry, prior to joining the University of Washington. Dr. Shapiro has been a Guggenheim Fellow, a Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and a Visiting Professor at the University of Nice. He has served on many institutional advisory boards and scientific review panels. In addition to being a Partner at PureTech Ventures, Shapiro is Chairman of Vascular Biogenics, Ltd., and a Director of Momenta Pharmaceuticals, Protein Forest, Satori, and Elixir Pharmaceuticals. Marc Van Ameringen, M.A., is the Executive Director of Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN). Prior to joining GAIN, Mr. Van Ameringen was Vice President of the Canadian-based Micronutrient Initiative which focuses primarily on delivering vitamin A supplementation programs around the world. Before this assignment, he was Special Advisor to the G8 Summit, assisting the G8 in responding to the NEPAD initiative. From 1992 to 2002, Mr. Van Ameringen was a Director based in Africa for the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), responsible for a number of large donor programs across Africa. He played an important role in assisting South Africa and other countries in Southern Africa in their reconstruction and development. Prior to moving to Africa, he held various senior positions in Canada for IDRC and other organizations. Mr. Van Ameringen has served as a board member and trustee of many different development organizations and has published a number of books on development in Africa.