Bortezomib (Velcade)—a drug approved in the United States for treating relapsed multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. NICE recommended against use of bortezomib in 2006.

Cancer registry—a system that monitors cancer cases that have been diagnosed or treated in one institution or a specific geographic area.

Cetuximab (Erbitux)—a monoclonal antibody drug used to treat advanced or metastatic cancer of the colon and rectum, usually in combination with chemotherapy or irinotecan, another cancer drug.

Clinical endpoint—a characteristic or variable that reflects how a patient feels, functions, or survives in response to a medical intervention.

Clinical practice guidelines—systematically defined statements to assist practitioner and patient decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances.

Clinical trial—a formal study carried out according to a prospectively defined protocol that is intended to discover or verify the safety and effectiveness of procedures or interventions in humans.

Cluster randomization—the randomization of groups (or clusters) of subjects. May be used as a randomization strategy in clinical trials.

Cohort study—an observational study in which outcomes in a group of patients that received an intervention are compared with outcomes in a similar group, that is, the cohort, either contemporary or historical, of patients that did not receive the intervention.

Coinsurance—the percentage of medical care costs covered by an insured individual beyond the deductible. In many cases, coinsurance is paid by the insured individual until a predefined limit is reached, after which all costs are covered by the health care plan. Coinsurance also is used to refer to supplemental insurance used to pay the fees not covered by the primary health care plan. Coinsurance is often synonymous with co-payment.

Colectomy—excision of a portion of the colon or its entirety (open vs. laparoscopic-assisted).

Co-payment or co-pay—the percentage of medical care costs covered by an insured individual beyond the deductible. Co-payment is often shortened to “co-pay,” and may be synonymous with coinsurance (see Coinsurance above).

Cost-effectiveness—the degree to which a service or a medical treatment meets a specified goal at an acceptable cost and level of quality. Cost-effectiveness analysis is a comparison of alternative interventions in which costs are measured in monetary units and outcomes

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