Tucker, L. A. 1989. Use of smokeless tobacco, cigarette smoking, and hypercholesterolemia. American Journal of Public Health 79(8):1048-1050.

Venn, A., and J. Britton. 2007. Exposure to secondhand smoke and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in never-smoking adults. Circulation 115(8):990-995.

von Klot, S., A. Peters, P. Aalto, T. Bellander, N. Berglind, D. D’Ippoliti, R. Elosua, A. Hormann, M. Kulmala, T. Lanki, H. Lowel, J. Pekkanen, S. Picciotto, J. Sunyer, and F. Forastiere. 2005. Ambient air pollution is associated with increased risk of hospital cardiac readmissions of myocardial infarction survivors in five european cities. Circulation 112(20):3073-3079.

Wallenfeldt, K., J. Hulthe, L. Bokemark, J. Wikstrand, and B. Fagerberg. 2001. Carotid and femoral atherosclerosis, cardiovascular risk factors and C-reactive protein in relation to smokeless tobacco use or smoking in 58-year-old men. Journal of Internal Medicine 250(6):492-501.

Walrath, J., and J. F. Fraumeni, Jr. 1984. Cancer and other causes of death among embalmers. Cancer Research 44(10):4638-4641.

Wang, T. J. 2008. New cardiovascular risk factors exist, but are they clinically useful? European Heart Journal 29(4):441-444.

Weitzman, M., S. Cook, P. Auinger, T. A. Florin, S. Daniels, M. Nguyen, and J. P. Winickoff. 2005. Tobacco smoke exposure is associated with the metabolic syndrome in adolescents. Circulation 112(6):862-869.

WHO (World Health Organization). 2007. The scientific basis of tobacco product regulation: Report of a WHO study group. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

Wilkinson, J. D., D. J. Lee, and K. L. Arheart. 2007. Secondhand smoke exposure and C-reactive protein levels in youth. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 9(2):305-307.

Winniford, M. D., K. R. Wheelan, M. S. Kremers, V. Ugolini, E. van den Berg, Jr., E. H. Niggemann, D. E. Jansen, and L. D. Hillis. 1986. Smoking-induced coronary vasoconstriction in patients with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease: Evidence for adrenergically mediated alterations in coronary artery tone. Circulation 73(4):662-667.

Woodward, M., A. Rumley, C. Rumley, S. Lewington, C. E. Morrison, and G. D. Lowe. 2006. The association between homocysteine and myocardial infarction is independent of age, sex, blood pressure, cholesterol, smoking and markers of inflammation: The Glasgow Myocardial Infarction Study. Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis 17(1):1-5.

Young, J. M., B. I. Shand, P. M. McGregor, R. S. Scott, and C. M. Frampton. 2006. Comparative effects of enzogenol and vitamin C supplementation versus vitamin C alone on endothelial function and biochemical markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic smokers. Free Radical Research 40(1):85-94.

Yuan, H., L. S. Wong, M. Bhattacharya, C. Ma, M. Zafarani, M. Yao, M. Schneider, R. E. Pitas, and M. Martins-Green. 2007. The effects of second-hand smoke on biological processes important in atherogenesis. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 7(1).

Zhang, S., I. Day, and S. Ye. 2001. Nicotine induced changes in gene expression by human coronary artery endothelial cells. Atherosclerosis 154(2):277-283.

Zhang, W. Z., K. Venardos, J. Chin-Dusting, and D. M. Kaye. 2006. Adverse effects of cigarette smoke on no bioavailability: Role of arginine metabolism and oxidative stress. Hypertension 48(2):278-285.

Zhu, B. Q., Y. P. Sun, R. E. Sievers, W. M. Isenberg, S. A. Glantz, and W. W. Parmley. 1993. Passive smoking increases experimental atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 21(1):225-232.

Zhu, B. Q., Y. P. Sun, R. E. Sievers, S. A. Glantz, W. W. Parmley, and C. L. Wolfe. 1994. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke increases myocardial infarct size in rats. Circulation 89(3):1282-1290.

Zoloth, S. R., D. M. Michaels, J. R. Villalbi, and M. Lacher. 1986. Patterns of mortality among commercial pressmen. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 76(6):1047-1051.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement