Attachment C
REFERENCES

Adak, G.K., S.M. Meakins, H. Yip, B.A. Lopman, and S.J. O’Brien. 2005. Disease risks from foods, England and Wales: 1996-2000. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11(3):365-372.

Batz, M. 2007. An Approach to Ranking Microbial Foodborne Hazards. Presentation at the Tools for Prioritizing Food Safety Concerns, JIFSAN (Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition) Workshop, June 4-6, 2007, Greenbelt, MD [online]. Available: http://www.jifsanapps.umd.edu/presentations/tools_2007/PDF/6.Batz_JIFSAN_Food_Safety.pdf [accessed Dec. 9, 2008].

Batz, M.B., S.A. Hoffmann, A.J. Krupnick, J.G. Morris, D.M. Sherman, M.R. Taylor, and J.S. Tick. 2004. Identifying the Most Significant Microbiological Foodborne Hazards to Public Health: A New Risk Ranking Model. Food Safety Research Consortium Discussion Paper No. 1. Resources for the Future, Washington, DC [online]. Available: http://www.rff.org/RFF/Documents/FRSC-DP-01.pdf [accessed Feb. 6, 2009].

Batz, M.B., M.P. Doyle, J.G. Morris, J. Painter, R. Singh, R.V. Tauxe, M.R. Taylor, and D.M. Lo Fo Wong. 2005. Attributing illness to food. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11(7):993-999.

Cassin, M.H., A.M. Lammerding, E.C. Todd, W. Ross, and R.S. McColl. 1998. Quantitative risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef hamburgers. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 41(1):21-44.

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2006a. Annual Listing of Foodborne Disease Outbreaks, United States – 2006. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov.foodborneoutbreaks/outbreak_data.htm [accessed Jan. 28, 2009].

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2006b. FoodNet Studies and Surveys – Case-Control Studies. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/FoodNet/studies_pages/case.htm [accessed Jan. 27, 2009].

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2007. Preliminary FoodNet data on the incidence of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food - 10 states, 2006. MMWR 56(14):336-339 [online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5614a4.htm [accessed Feb. 6, 2009].

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2008. Preliminary FoodNet data on the incidence of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food - 10 states, 2007. MMWR 57(14):366-370 [online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5714a2.htm [accessed Apr. 3, 2009].

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2008a. Campylobacter. Division of Foodborne, Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/campylobacter_gi.html [accessed Jan. 9, 2009].

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2008b. Salmonella Surveillance: Annual Summary, 2006. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA [online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/phlisdata/salmtab/2006/SalmonellaAnnualSummary2006.pdf [accessed Feb. 10, 2009].

CFSAN/FSIS/CDC (Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition/ Food Safety Inspection Service/ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2003. Quantitative Assessment of Relative Risk to Public Health from Foodborne Listeria monocytogenes Among Selected Categories of Ready-to-Eat Foods. Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. September 2003 [online]. Available: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/lmr2-toc.html [accessed Feb. 9, 2009].

Chen, Y., K.M. Jackson, F.P. Chea, and D.W. Schaffner. 2001. Quantification and variability analysis of bacterial cross-contamination rates in the kitchen. J. Food Protect. 64(1):72-80.

Clemen, R.T., and R.L. Winkler. 1999. Combining probability distributions from experts in risk analysis. Risk Anal. 19(2):187-204.

Cooke, R.M., and L.H. Goossens. 1999. Procedures Guide for Structured Expert Judgment. Prepared for the Commission of European Communities, by Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands. June 1999.

Cressey, P.J., and R. Lake. 2004. Ranking Microbiological Food Safety Risk in New Zealand. Poster P109 at International Association for Food Protection 91st Annual Meeting, August 8-11, 2004, Phoenix, AZ [Journal of Food Protection 67 (Suppl. A):87].



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Attachment C REFERENCES Adak, G.K., S.M. Meakins, H. Yip, B.A. Lopman, and S.J. O’Brien. 2005. Disease risks from foods, England and Wales: 1996-2000. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11(3):365-372. Batz, M. 2007. An Approach to Ranking Microbial Foodborne Hazards. Presentation at the Tools for Prioritizing Food Safety Concerns, JIFSAN (Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition) Workshop, June 4- 6, 2007, Greenbelt, MD [online]. Available: http://www.jifsanapps.umd.edu/presentations/tools_2007/PDF/ 6.Batz_JIFSAN_Food_Safety.pdf [accessed Dec. 9, 2008]. Batz, M.B., S.A. Hoffmann, A.J. Krupnick, J.G. Morris, D.M. Sherman, M.R. Taylor, and J.S. Tick. 2004. Identifying the Most Significant Microbiological Foodborne Hazards to Public Health: A New Risk Ranking Model. Food Safety Research Consortium Discussion Paper No. 1. Resources for the Future, Washington, DC [online]. Available: http://www.rff.org/RFF/Documents/FRSC-DP-01.pdf [accessed Feb. 6, 2009]. Batz, M.B., M.P. Doyle, J.G. Morris, J. Painter, R. Singh, R.V. Tauxe, M.R. Taylor, and D.M. Lo Fo Wong. 2005. Attributing illness to food. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11(7):993-999. Cassin, M.H., A.M. Lammerding, E.C. Todd, W. Ross, and R.S. McColl. 1998. Quantitative risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef hamburgers. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 41(1):21-44. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2006a. Annual Listing of Foodborne Disease Outbreaks, United States – 2006. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov.foodborneoutbreaks/outbreak_data.htm [accessed Jan. 28, 2009]. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2006b. FoodNet Studies and Surveys – Case-Control Studies. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/FoodNet/studies_pages/case.htm [accessed Jan. 27, 2009]. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2007. Preliminary FoodNet data on the incidence of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food - 10 states, 2006. MMWR 56(14):336-339 [online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5614a4.htm [accessed Feb. 6, 2009]. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2008. Preliminary FoodNet data on the incidence of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food - 10 states, 2007. MMWR 57(14):366-370 [online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5714a2.htm [accessed Apr. 3, 2009]. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2008a. Campylobacter. Division of Foodborne, Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/ nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/campylobacter_gi.html [accessed Jan. 9, 2009]. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2008b. Salmonella Surveillance: Annual Summary, 2006. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA [online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/ dbmd/phlisdata/salmtab/2006/SalmonellaAnnualSummary2006.pdf [accessed Feb. 10, 2009]. CFSAN/FSIS/CDC (Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition/ Food Safety Inspection Service/ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2003. Quantitative Assessment of Relative Risk to Public Health from Foodborne Listeria monocytogenes Among Selected Categories of Ready-to-Eat Foods. Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. September 2003 [online]. Available: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/lmr2-toc.html [accessed Feb. 9, 2009]. Chen, Y., K.M. Jackson, F.P. Chea, and D.W. Schaffner. 2001. Quantification and variability analysis of bacterial cross-contamination rates in the kitchen. J. Food Protect. 64(1):72-80. Clemen, R.T., and R.L. Winkler. 1999. Combining probability distributions from experts in risk analysis. Risk Anal. 19(2):187-204. Cooke, R.M., and L.H. Goossens. 1999. Procedures Guide for Structured Expert Judgment. Prepared for the Commission of European Communities, by Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands. June 1999. Cressey, P.J., and R. Lake. 2004. Ranking Microbiological Food Safety Risk in New Zealand. Poster P109 at International Association for Food Protection 91st Annual Meeting, August 8-11, 2004, Phoenix, AZ [Journal of Food Protection 67 (Suppl. A):87]. 32

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Crouch, E., and N.J. Golden. 2005. A Risk Assessment for Clostridium perfringens in Ready-to-Eat and Partially Cooked Meat and Poultry Products. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service [online]. Available: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/CPerfringens_Risk_Assess_Sep2005.pdf [accessed Feb. 6, 2009]. Dewaal, C.S., H. Giselle, K. Barlow, L. Alderton, and L. Vegosen. 2006. Foods associated with foodborne illness outbreaks from 1990 through 2003. Food Protection Trends 26(7):466-473. Dreyling, E. 2008. Public Health Risk Ranking for Processing and Slaughter Establishments. Presentation at the First Meeting on the Use of Public Health Data in FSIS Food Safety Programs, November 6, 2008, Washington, DC. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority). 2008. Overview of methods for source attribution for human illness from foodborne microbiological hazards: Scientific opinion of the Panel on Biological Hazards. The EFSA Journal 764:1-43 [online]. Available: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/cs/BlobServer/Scientific_Opinion/ biohaz_op_ej764_source_attribution_en.pdf?ssbinary=true [accessed Feb. 6, 2009]. Evers, E.G., H.J. Van Der Fels-Klerx, M.J. Nauta, J.F. Schijven, and A.H. Havelaar. 2008. Campylobacter source attribution by exposure assessment. Int. J. Risk. Assess. Manag. 8(1/2):174-190. FAO/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization). 2001. Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme: CODEX Committee on Food Hygiene, 34th Section, Bangkok, Thailand, October 8-13, 2001: Draft Response to the Codex Executive Committee Regarding Clarification of the Terms “Hazard Analysis”and “Risk Analysis”. CX/FH 01/2-Add.1. August 2001[online]. Available: ftp://ftp.fao.org/codex/ccfh34/fh0102ae.pdf [accessed Feb. 6, 2009]. Friedman, C.R., R.M. Hoekstra, M. Samuel, R. Marcus, J. Bender, B. Shiferaw, S. Reddy, S.D. Ahuja, D.L. Helfrick, F. Hardnett, M. Carter, B. Anderson, and R.V. Tauxe. 2004. Risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infection in the United States: A case-control study in FoodNet sites. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38(Suppl 3):S285-S296. FSIS (Food Safety and Inspection Service). 2001. Risk Assessment of the Public Health Impact of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in Ground Beef. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service. September 7, 2001 [online]. Available: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/rdad/FRPubs/00-023N/00-023NReport.pdf [accessed Mar. 5, 2009]. FSIS (Food Safety and Inspection Service). 2008a. Public Health Risk-Based Inspection System for Processing and Slaughter. Technical Report. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service. April 18, 2008 [online]. Available: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/NACMPI/Feb2008/Processing_Slaughter_ Tech_Rpt_041808.pdf [accessed Feb. 9, 2009]. FSIS (Food Safety and Inspection Service). 2008b. Improvements for Poultry Slaughter Inspection. Technical Report. 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FSIS Risk Assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in Deli Meats. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service [online]. Available: http://www.fsis. usda.gov/OPPDE/RDAD/FRPubs/97-013F/ListeriaReport.pdf [accessed Feb. 9, 2009]. Guo, C. 2007. A Statistical Model for Attributing Human Salmonellosis to Meat, Poultry, and Eggs. Food Safety Summit Attributing Illness to Food, April 5, 2007, Washington, DC. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service [online]. Available: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/RBI_Guo.pdf [accessed Feb. 10, 2009]. Hald, T., D. Vose, H.C. Wegener, and T. Koupeev. 2004. A Bayesian approach to quantify the contribution of animal-food sources to human salmonellosis. Risk Anal. 24(1):255-269. Hald, T., D.M. Lo Fo Wong, and F.M. Aarestrup. 2007. The attribution of human infections with antibiotic resistant Salmonella bacteria in Denmark to sources of animal origin. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 4(3):313-326. Hall, G., M.D. Kirk, N. Becker, J.E. Gregory, L. Unicomb, G. Millard, R. Stafford, and K. Lalor. 2005. Estimating foodborne gastroenteritis, Australia. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11(8):1257-1264. 33

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Havelaar, A.H., J. Braunig, K. Christiansen, M. Cornu, T. Hald, M.J.J. Mangen, K. Molbak, A. Pielaat, E. Snary, W. Van Pelt, A. Velthuis, and H. Wahlstrom. 2007. Towards an integrated approach in supporting microbiological food safety decisions. Zoonoses Public Health 54(3-4):103-117. Havelaar, A.H., A.V. Galindo, D. Kurowicka, and R.M. Cooke. 2008. Attribution of foodborne pathogens using structured expert elicitation. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 5(5):649-659. Hennessy, T.W., C.W. Hedberg, L. Slutsker, K.E. White, J.M. Besser-Wiek, M.E. Moen, J. Feldman, W.W. Coleman, L.M. Edmonson, K.L. MacDonald, M.T. Osterholm. 1996. A national outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis infections from ice cream. N Engl J Med. 334(20):1281-1286. Hoffmann, S., P. Fischbeck, A. Krupnick, and M. McWilliams. 2007a. Using expert elicitation to link foodborne illnesses in the United States to foods. J. Food Prot. 70(5):1220-1229. Hoffmann, S., P. Fischbeck, A. Krupnick, and M. McWilliams. 2007b. Elicitation from large, heterogeneous expert panels: Using multiple uncertainty measures to characterize information quality for decision analysis. Decision Anal. 4(2):91-109. Hoffmann, S., P. Fischbeck, A. Krupnick, and M. McWilliams. 2008. Informing risk-mitigation priorities using uncertainty measures derived from heterogeneous expert panels: A demonstration using foodborne pathogens. Reliab. Eng. Syst. Safe. 93(5):687-698. Hurd, S. 2008. USDA Perspective on Charge to NAS Committee. Presentation at the First Meeting on the Use of Public Health Data in FSIS Food Safety Programs, November 6, 2008, Washington, DC. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2009. Review of the Use of Process Control Indicators in the FSIS Public Health Risk- Based Inspection System. A Letter Report. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. IOM/NRC (Institute of Medicine and National Research Council). 2003. Scientific Criteria to Ensure Safe Food. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Karns, S., M. Muth, and M. Cogliaiti. 2005. Relative Risks of Meat and Poultry Products: An Expert Elicitation (Contract No. 43-3A94-2-0260). Memorandum to M. Michael, Food Safety and Inspection Service, from S. Karns, M. Muth, and M. Cogliaiti, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC. September 22, 2005 [online]. Available: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/pdf/elicitation_memo_092205.pdf [accessed Mar. 25, 2009]. Karns, S.A., M.K. Muth, and M.C. Coglaiti. 2007. Results of an Additional Expert Elicitation on the Relative Risks of Meat and Poultry Products: Final Report. RTI Project No. 0208893.027. Prepared for U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service, Washington, DC, by RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC. July 2007 [online]. Available: http://www.rti.org/pubs/08893_027_final.pdf [accessed Feb. 9, 2009]. Keene, B., and C.P. Kanwat. 2007. Presentation at the 3rd Annual Meeting for OutbreakNet (Outbreak Network for Foodborne Diseases Surveillance and Response), 2007 CSTE (Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists) Annual Conference, June 24, 2007, Atlantic City, NJ. Kelly, L.A., E. Hartnett, G. Gettinby, A. Fazil, E. Snary, and M. Wooldridge. 2003. Microbiological safety of poultry meat: Risk assessment as a way forward. World Poultry. Sci. J. 59:495-508. Kimura, A.C., V. Reddy, R. Marcus, P.R. Cieslak, J.C. Mohle-Boetani, H.D. Kassenborg, S.D. Segler, F.P. Hardnett, T. Barrett, and D.L. Swerdlow. 2004. Chicken consumption is a newly identified risk factor for sporadic Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections in the United States: A case-control study in FoodNet sites. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38(Suppl. 3): S244-S252. Lynch, M., J. Painter, R. Woodruff, and C. Braden. 2006. Guidelines for confirmation of food-borne disease outbreaks. Appendix B in Surveillance for Foodborne Disease outbreaks—United States, 1998-2002. MMWR 55(SS10):38-42. [online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ ss5510a3.htm [accessed Dec. 16, 2008]. Malorny, B., E. Junker, and R. Helmuth. 2008. Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis for outbreak studies of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis. BMC Microbiol. 8:84. McNabb, S.J.N., R.A. Jajosky, P.A. Hall-Baker, D.A. Adams, P. Sharp, C. Worsham, W.J. Anderson, J.J. Aponte, G.F. Jones, D.A. Nitschke, A. Rey, and M.S. Wodajo. 2008. Summary of Notifiable Disease-United States, 2006. MMWR 55(53) [online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/mmWR/PDF/wk/mm5553.pdf [accessed Feb. 10, 2009] Mead, P.S., L. Slutsker, V. Dietz, L.F. McCraig, H.S. Bresee, C. Shapiro, P.M. Griffin, and R.B. Tauxe. 1999. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5(5):607-625. Nauta, M., I. van der Fels-Klerx, and A. Havelaar. 2005. A poultry-processing model for quantitative microbiological risk assessment. Risk Anal. 25(1):85-98. 34

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