7.3  Domestic Law,

 

282

   

 7.3.1  Covert Action and Military Activity,

 

283

   

 7.3.2  Title III and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act,

 

286

   

 7.3.3  Posse Comitatus,

 

288

   

 7.3.4  The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act and Other Federal Law,

 

288

   

 7.3.5  The War Powers Resolution,

 

290

   

 7.3.6  Executive Order 12333 (United States Intelligence Activities),

 

290

   

 7.4  Foreign Domestic Law,

 

292

8

 

INSIGHTS FROM RELATED AREAS

 

293

   

 8.1  Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear War,

 

293

   

 8.2  Space,

 

296

   

 8.3  Biological Weapons,

 

297

   

 8.4  Non-lethal Weapons,

 

299

9

 

SPECULATIONS ON THE DYNAMICS OF CYBERCONFLICT

 

302

   

 9.1  Deterrence and Cyberconflict,

 

302

   

 9.2  Escalatory Dynamics of Cyberconflict Between Nation-States,

 

306

   

 9.2.1  Crisis Stability,

 

306

   

 9.2.2  Escalation Control and Management,

 

308

   

 9.2.3  Complications Introduced by Patriotic Hackers,

 

310

   

 9.2.4  Incentives for Self-restraint in Escalation,

 

311

   

 9.2.5  Termination of Cyberconflict,

 

311

   

 9.2.6  The Role of Transparency,

 

312

   

 9.2.7  Catalytic Cyberconflict,

 

312

   

 9.3  Cyberconflict Between the United States and Non-state Actors,

 

313

   

 9.4  The Political Side of Escalation,

 

315

10

 

ALTERNATIVE FUTURES

 

318

   

 10.1  Regulatory Regimes—Basic Principles,

 

318

   

 10.2  Regulatory Regimes for Cyberattack,

 

321

   

 10.2.1  Direct Approaches Based on Traditional Arms Control,

 

321

   

 10.2.2  Indirect Approaches Based on Regulation of Non-military Domains,

 

326

   

 10.3  Foreign Perspectives on Cyberattack,

 

328



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