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Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration Appendix B Biographies of Committee Members and Staff WILLIAM W. HOOVER, Co-Chair, is a consultant for aviation, defense, and energy matters. He is a former Assistant Secretary, Defense Programs, U.S. Department of Energy, where he was responsible for the U.S. nuclear weapons development program, including production, research, testing, safety, and security. He is also a Major General, USAF (retired), and a former chair of the NRC’s Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board. RALPH L. McNUTT, JR., Co-Chair, is a senior space physicist at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Dr. McNutt is currently the Project Scientist and a Co-Investigator on the MESSENGER Discovery mission to Mercury, a Co-Investigator on the New Horizons mission to Pluto, and a Co-Investigator on the Voyager Plasma Science (PLS) and Low-Energy Charged Particles (LECP) experiments. He is also a member of the Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer Team for the Cassini Orbiter spacecraft. He has worked on the physics of the magnetospheres of the outer planets, the outer heliosphere (including solar wind dynamics and properties of VLF radiation), Pluto’s atmosphere, pulsars, high current electron beams, the physics of active experiments in the mesosphere/thermosphere (artificial aurora), and the solar neutrino problem. Dr. McNutt previously served as a member of the NRC Committee for the Study of the Next Decadal Mars Architecture (2006), the Committee on Priorities for Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power and Propulsion: A Vision for Beyond 2015 (2004-2006), the Committee to Assess Solar System Exploration (2007-2008), and the Committee to Review New Opportunities in Solar System Exploration (2007-2008). DOUGLAS M. ALLEN, the General Manager of Schafer Corporation’s Dayton operations, has 28 years experience in aerospace technology, with an emphasis on space power technology. He formerly was the program manager of nuclear power system development for SDIO (now the Missile Defense Agency), including the SP-100 and Topaz programs. He served as a member of NASA’s Lunar Surface Fission Power System Study in support of the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) in 2005, as a member of NASA’s Nuclear Strategic Roadmap committee in 2004-2005, and as a member of an NRC thermionics study committee in 2000. He was awarded AIAA’s Aerospace Power Systems Award for career achievements in space power in 2008. SAMIM ANGHAIE is a professor of nuclear and radiological engineering at the University of Florida, where he also is director of the Innovative Nuclear Space Power and Propulsion Institute (INSPI). He has been a professor at Florida since 1986, before which he was an assistant professor at Oregon State University for two years. His research interests include thermal hydraulics, computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer, high temperature nuclear fuels and materials, inverse radiation transport methods, advanced reactor design, direct energy conversion, and space nuclear power and propulsion. RETA F. BEEBE is a professor in the Astronomy Department at New Mexico State University. She is a leading expert in the study of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, and in particular, studies of cloud motion and development in Jupiter’s atmosphere. She undertakes her studies using a variety of techniques including ground- and space-based telescopic observations and remote-sensing studies using spacecraft. Most recently, she has served as an associate member of the Galileo imaging team and has led the team of astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope to provide context images for the Galileo project. Dr. Beebe currently serves as the program scientist for the Planetary Data System (PDS). Dr. Beebe has also been extensively involved in the management and implementation of the research and analysis programs that provide basic research funding to planetary scientists.
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Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration WARREN W. BUCK, an internationally known theoretical physicist, is professor of Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences and chancellor emeritus at the University of Washington, Bothell (UWB). He is also adjunct professor of physics at the Seattle campus of the University of Washington. Prior to joining UWB, Dr. Buck was professor of physics and director of the Nuclear/High Energy Physics Research Center of Excellence at Hampton University. He was also a member of the team that established the scientific program at the Department of Energy’s Jefferson Laboratory in Newport News, Virginia. BEVERLY A. COOK has over 30 years’ experience in nuclear safety, materials research, facilities operations and management. She is currently the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s Planning and Integration Manager for the Deep Space Network (DSN) Program. Prior to joining the DSN team, she supported the JPL development and use of space nuclear power systems in NASA missions. In her prior work for the Department of Energy, she was responsible for the fabrication and delivery of the radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) for the Cassini mission as well as delivery of RTGs to other DOE customers. She also interacted with Congress, OMB, and NASA on issues related to funding and support for continued development of nuclear power systems for space applications. Prior to joining JPL in 2004, Ms. Cook served as the Assistant Secretary of Energy for Environment, Safety, and Health. Other positions at the DOE included Manager of the Idaho Operations Office and Deputy Assistant Secretary of Nuclear Energy. SERGIO B. GUARRO is a Distinguished Engineer in the Engineering and Technology Group (ETG), Systems Engineering Division (SED) of the Aerospace Corporation. He applies multi-decade expertise in systems engineering, risk assessment, and risk management disciplines onto the development, coordination, and implementation of mission assurance processes in National Security Space (NSS) and NASA programs. He provides leadership in the development and establishment of risk management and mission assurance best practices within Aerospace by assisting NSS programs in the setting and execution of their risk management and mission assurance goals and activities. He also supports the corporate Aerospace Corporation Chief Engineer and Systems Engineering organizations in the development of risk management and mission assurance guidance and implementation tools for use in all NSS programs supported by Aerospace. In the course of his career Dr. Guarro has developed risk assessment methodologies for both space and nuclear power systems, such as the one adopted for the launch approval of the NASA Cassini nuclear-powered mission, and the Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) for the risk analysis of dynamic systems. He is the author of the chapters of the NASA Probabilistic Risk Assessment Procedures Guide that address the risk modeling of physical systems and the risk of software-intensive space systems, and he has served on NRC committees as an expert panelist for space systems risk assessment. He has authored and has been the co-editor of technical textbooks and has published close to 80 papers in refereed journals and conference proceedings. His latest work in the area of mission assurance is documented in The Aerospace Corporation Mission Assurance Guide, which is currently being published and distributed across the Company. Dr. Guarro’s direct nuclear power expertise was applied in jobs with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (NRC/ACRS) and with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, where he was a project leader in the nuclear systems safety program. He is still currently a consultant to the NRC/ACRS. At Aerospace, he started his career as an Engineering Specialist and then carried several ETG management positions, including that of Manager of the Reliability and Risk Assessment Section and then, before his current appointment, of Director of the Risk Planning and Assessment Office. ROGER D. LAUNIUS is senior curator in the Division of Space History at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C. Between 1990 and 2002 he served as chief historian of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. He has written or edited more than 20 books on aerospace history, including Critical Issues in the History of Spaceflight, Space Stations: Base Camps to the Stars, and Frontiers of Space Exploration. He has also completed a study of the history of radioisotope thermoelectric generators. FRANK B. McDONALD (NAS) is a pioneer and leader in cosmic-ray astrophysics and high-energy astronomy in general. He is also well known in the areas of solar wind and planetary magnetospheres. He is currently a senior research scientist in the Institute for Physical Science and Technology at the University of Maryland, College Park, and formerly served as NASA chief scientist. Dr. McDonald has been involved in the study of energetic particles in the heliosphere for many years. His energetic particle experiments on the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft continue to be a resource for studying the dynamics of the outer heliosphere and the properties of low-energy galactic and anomalous cosmic rays. Dr. McDonald is a former NAS section 16 liaison and was chair of the NRC Panel on Space Sciences. He also served on the NRC Committee on Solar and Space Physics and Committee on NASA Astrophysics Performance Assessment. ALAN R. NEWHOUSE is a consultant in the field of space nuclear power and related technologies. In 1995, he retired from the Department of Energy where he served as the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Energy for Space and Defense Power Systems. As such, he was responsible for the management and execution of programs to provide nuclear
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Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration power systems for space and national security applications, for Cassini RTG production, for development of the SP-100 space nuclear reactor, and for several classified programs. He initiated technical development of new energy conversion technologies for space and terrestrial applications. During 2002, Mr. Newhouse was a consultant to NASA’s Office of Space Science on the Nuclear System Initiative (later Project Prometheus). In 2003 he joined NASA and was in charge of Project Prometheus. In late 2004 he was appointed as the Program Executive for Radioisotope Power Systems in the Science Mission Directorate and as a senior technical advisor to the Development Division of NASA’s Exploration Systems Directorate. He retired again from government service at the end of 2004. JOSEPH A. SHOLTIS, JR., Lt Col, USAF (retired), is a nuclear and aerospace engineer with 38 years of experience with advanced nuclear systems and programs for a variety of applications. Areas of particular focus include space and advanced terrestrial nuclear systems and their safety, and risk assessment of space missions employing nuclear systems or materials, including preparation and delivery of formal studies and analyses to middle and top management in the Department of Defense (DoD), Department of Energy (DOE), NASA, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the White House, and Congress. Mr. Sholtis is the owner and principal consultant of Sholtis Engineering and Safety Consulting. Current and prior customers include Sandia National Laboratories, Rocketdyne, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the New Mexico Office of Space Commercialization, and the joint DoD, DOE, NASA, EPA, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel. Areas currently being investigated include Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) safety, Mars Science Laboratory mission risk, as well as assessment and advancement of coated particle fuel for future radioisotope power systems. During his career, Mr. Sholtis has worked at Sandia National Laboratories (on advanced reactors), the Defense Nuclear Agency (on research and test reactors and radiation sources), and DOE Headquarters (on the joint DOE/DoD/NASA SP-100 Space Reactor Power System Development Program). He has been involved in the nuclear safety and risk assessment of every U.S. nuclear-powered space mission launched since 1974; i.e., Viking 1 and 2, Lincoln Experimental Satellites (LES) 8 and 9, Voyager 1 and 2, Galileo, Ulysses, Mars Pathfinder, Cassini, Mars Exploration Rover (MER) A and B, and Pluto-New Horizons. SPENCER R. TITLEY (NAE) is a professor in the Department of Geosciences at the University of Arizona. He previously worked on NASA’s Lunar Orbiter program and was also a member of the Apollo Field Geology Investigation Team, serving on Apollo missions 16 and 17. His current research involves the study of the origin of mineral deposits and the distribution and location of mineral and mineral fuel resources. His research has also included the study of chemical baselines of trace elements in rocks and ores for environmental purpose. EMANUEL TWARD is a consultant to Northrop Grumman Space Technology, an organization from which he retired in 2006. At the time, he was the cryogenics business area manager and project manager for a number of flight cryocooler development projects (13 in orbit) and for development of a thermoacoustic Stirling power converter. Dr. Tward has also worked at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s Low Temperature Physics Group, where he was active in the development of long-lived cryocoolers for spacecraft. Dr. Tward was previously an associate professor of physics at the University of Regina, where he was developing a gravitational wave detector. EARL WAHLQUIST worked in the Radioisotope Power System program for the Department of Energy for more than 20 years, and he was the program director for the program for the last 8 years before he retired in 2006. In that role Mr. Wahlquist managed the development of the RTG for the Pluto spacecraft that was launched in 2006. This included responsibility for the contractors producing the RTG and the DOE facilities and infrastructure that processed the 238Pu into heat sources and assembled the heat sources into the generators. It also included directing the review and assurance of the safety of the systems, including interfacing with the interagency review group that independently reviews the safety. Mr. Wahlquist also managed efforts to centralize all of the DOE RTG processing and assembling facilities at a single location. He also directed several studies looking at either purchasing 238Pu from foreign sources or producing the material within the United States. STAFF ALAN C. ANGLEMAN, Study Director, has been a senior program officer for the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) since 1993, directing studies on a wide variety of aerospace issues. Previously, Mr. Angleman worked for consulting firms in the Washington, D.C., area providing engineering support services to the Department of Defense and NASA Headquarters. His professional career began with the U.S. Navy, where he served for nine years as a nuclear-trained submarine officer. He has a B.S. in engineering physics from the U.S. Naval Academy and an M.S. in applied physics from the Johns Hopkins University. DWAYNE A. DAY, a program officer for the Space Studies Board (SSB), has a Ph.D. in political science from the George Washington University and has previously served as an investigator for the Columbia Accident Investigation
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Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration Board. He was on the staff of the Congressional Budget Office and also worked for the Space Policy Institute at the George Washington University. He has held Guggenheim and Verville fellowships and is an associate editor of the German spaceflight magazine Raumfahrt Concrete, in addition to writing for such publications as Novosti Kosmonavtiki (Russia) and Spaceflight and Space Chronicle (United Kingdom). He has served as study director for several NRC reports, including Space Radiation Hazards and the Vision for Space Exploration (2006), Grading NASA’s Solar System Exploration Program: A Midterm Review (2008), and Opening New Frontiers in Space: Choices for the Next New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity (2008). CATHERINE A. GRUBER is an editor with the Space Studies Board. She joined SSB as a senior program assistant in 1995. Ms. Gruber first came to the NRC in 1988. She was a research assistant (chemist) in the National Institute of Mental Health’s Laboratory of Cell Biology for 2 years. She has a B.A. in natural science from St. Mary’s College of Maryland. SARAH M. CAPOTE was a program associate for the ASEB through November 2008. During her time with the ASEB, she worked on a variety of studies pertaining to space radiation, wake turbulence, assessing the research and development plan for the next generation air transportation system, NASA aeronautics research, NASA’s exploration technology development program, as well as an assessment of NASA’s National Aviation Operations Monitoring Service (NAOMS) Project. Before joining ASEB, Ms. Capote worked for the Ocean Studies Board for several years. She assisted with studies that concern oil spill dispersants, nonnative oysters in the Chesapeake Bay, mitigating shore erosion, exploring the seas, a science plan for the North Pacific Research Board, coastal zone mapping, vehicles in deep submergence science, and a review of the Ocean Research Priorities Plan. She is currently a research associate for the Air Force Studies Board. Ms. Capote earned her B.A. in history from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 2001. CELESTE A. NAYLOR was a senior program assistant for SSB from November 2008 through January 2009. She is currently SSB’s information management associate. Ms. Naylor joined the SSB in 2002 and has worked with the Committee on Assessment of Options to Extend the Life of the Hubble Space Telescope, the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics, and the Task Group on Research on the International Space Station. Ms. Naylor is a member of the Society of Government Meeting Professionals and has more than 10 years of experience in event management. ANDREA M. REBHOLZ joined the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board as a program associate in January 2009. She began her career at the National Academies in October 2005 as a senior program assistant for the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation. Prior to the Academies, she worked in the communications department of a D.C.-based think tank. Ms. Rebholz graduated from George Mason University’s New Century College in 2003 with a B.A. in integrative studies–event management and has over 7 years of experience in event planning.