decay-in-storage. Laboratory decay-in-storage space can provide safe storage for low-risk mixed wastes. Laboratory storage is not appropriate for storage of putrescent or reactive materials.

The specific USNRC requirements for decay-in-storage of radioactive waste are usually detailed in the institution’s license. Decay-in-storage is usually limited to half-lives of less than 65 days. When the short-half-life radionuclides have decayed to background levels (the length of time depending on the initial radioactivity level but typically defined as a storage period of at least 10 half-lives), the chemical–radioactive waste can be managed as a chemical waste. After the decay period, USNRC licenses usually require that the mixed waste be surveyed for external radiation prior to releasing it to the chemical waste stream.

Storage of mixed waste for decay for more than 90 days may require the approval of the state chemical hazardous waste authority. In permitted storage facilities, storage may be limited to 1 year for some types of mixed waste. Workers should contact their institution’s EHS staff or local hazardous waste agency to determine their regulatory status and requirements for storing mixed waste for decay.

8.C.1.3 Hazard Reduction of Mixed Waste

Chemical hazards can be reduced by carrying out various common chemical reactions with the waste in the laboratory. However, “treatment” of chemical hazardous waste has regulatory implications that must be considered. Many of the same considerations apply to treatment of mixed waste.

Nevertheless, there are still justifiable and legal reasons to carry out such operations in the laboratory when hazards can be minimized safely. Neutralization, oxidation, reduction, and various other chemical conversions as well as physical methods of separation and concentration can be applied prudently to many laboratory-scale mixed wastes. However, the dual character of the hazard, chemical and radioactive, requires that additional precautions be exercised. Treatment for the chemical hazard must not create a radioactivity risk for personnel or the environment. For example, vapors or aerosols from a reaction, distillation, or evaporation must not lead to escape of unsafe levels of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. Laboratory chemical hoods appropriate for such operations should be designed to trap any radioactive effluent. When mixed waste is made chemically safe for disposal into the sanitary sewer, the laboratory must ensure that the radioactivity hazard is below the standards set by the POTW. Several examples for reducing the hazard of mixed waste are described below:

   The worker can reduce the chemical hazard to a safe level and then handle the material as only a radioactive hazardous waste. Many low-level radiation materials can then be allowed to decay to a safe level, following which simple disposal is allowable.

   Some radioactive methanol–acetic acid solutions from gel electrophoresis can be recycled via distillation and the methanol reused. The solution is neutralized prior to distillation to protect the distillation equipment from corrosion and to reduce the level of methyl acetate formed during the process.

   The volume of waste phenol, chloroform, methanol, and water containing radionuclides can be reduced by separating the nonaqueous portion using a separatory funnel. After separation, the organic phase can be distilled to produce chloroform waste, which may contain levels of radioactivity below license limits for radioactive waste. The still bottom and aqueous phase must be handled as a mixed waste.

   High-performance liquid chromatography, used to purify radiolabeled proteins and lipids, can generate a waste radioactive solution of acetonitrile, water, methanol, acetic acid, and often a small amount of dimethylformamide. When the solution is distilled by rotary flash evaporation, the distillate of acetonitrile, methanol, and water is nonradioactive and can be handled as a chemical hazardous waste. The radioactive still bottom, containing 1 to 5% methanol and acetic acid, can usually be neutralized, diluted, and disposed of in the sanitary sewer.

   Aqueous solutions containing uranyl or thorium compounds can be evaporated to dryness and the residues disposed of as radioactive waste. Because of their toxicity, solidification may be necessary prior to burial at a LLRW site.

   Activated carbon, Molecular Sieves®, synthetic resins, and ion-exchange resins have been used with varying success in the separation of chemical and radioactive waste constituents. Activated carbon has been used to remove low concentrations of chloroform (less than 150 ppm) from aqueous mixed waste solutions. However, activated carbon is not suitable for high concentrations of phenol–chloroform or acetonitrile–water mixed waste. Amberlite® XAD resin, a series of Amberlite® polymeric absorbent resins used in chromatography, has been shown to be effective in removing the organic constituents from aqueous phenol, chloroform, and methanol solutions, leaving an aqueous solution that can be managed as

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