Appendix A: OSHA Laboratory Standard

29 CFR 1910.1450—Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories

(a)   Scope and application.

(1) This section shall apply to all employers engaged in the laboratory use of hazardous chemicals as defined below.

(2) Where this section applies, it shall supersede, for laboratories, the requirements of all other OSHA health standards in 29 CFR part 1910, subpart Z, except as follows:

(i) For any OSHA health standard, only the requirement to limit employee exposure to the specific permissible exposure limit shall apply for laboratories, unless that particular standard states otherwise or unless the conditions of paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section apply.

(ii) Prohibition of eye and skin contact where specified by any OSHA health standard shall be observed.

(iii) Where the action level (or in the absence of an action level, the permissible exposure limit) is routinely exceeded for an OSHA regulated substance with exposure monitoring and medical surveillance requirements paragraphs (d) and (g)(1)(ii) of this section shall apply.

(3) This section shall not apply to:

(i) Uses of hazardous chemicals which do not meet the definition of laboratory use, and in such cases, the employer shall comply with the relevant standard in 29 CFR part 1910, subpart Z, even if such use occurs in a laboratory.

(ii) Laboratory uses of hazardous chemicals which provide no potential for employee exposure. Examples of such conditions might include:

(A) Procedures using chemically-impregnated test media such as Dip-and-Read tests where a reagent strip is dipped into the specimen to be tested and the results are interpreted by comparing the color reaction to a color chart supplied by the manufacturer of the test strip; and

(B) Commercially prepared kits such as those used in performing pregnancy tests in which all of the reagents needed to conduct the test are contained in the kit.

(b) Definitions—’’Action level” means a concentration designated in 29 CFR part 1910 for a specific substance, calculated as an eight (8)-hour time-weighted average, which initiates certain required activities such as exposure monitoring and medical surveillance.

“Assistant Secretary” means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, or designee. “Carcinogen” (see “select carcinogen”).

“Chemical Hygiene Officer” means an employee who is designated by the employer, and who is qualified by training or experience, to provide technical guidance in the development and implementation of the provisions of the Chemical Hygiene Plan. This definition is not intended to place limitations on the position description or job classification that the designated individual shall hold within the employer’s organizational structure.

“Chemical Hygiene Plan” means a written program developed and implemented by the employer which sets forth procedures, equipment, personal protective equipment and work practices that (i) are capable of protecting employees from the health hazards presented by hazardous chemicals used in that particular workplace and (ii) meets the requirements of paragraph (e) of this section. “Combustible liquid” means any liquid having a flashpoint at or above 100 deg. F (37.8 deg. C), but below 200 deg. F (93.3 deg. C), except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 200 deg. F (93.3 deg. C), or higher, the total volume of which make up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.



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Appendix A: OSHA Laboratory Standard 29 CFR 1910.1450—Occupational Exposure to (A) Procedures using chemically-im- Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories pregnated test media such as Dip- and-Read tests where a reagent strip is (a) Scope and application. dipped into the specimen to be tested and the results are interpreted by com- (1) This section shall apply to all employers en- paring the color reaction to a color chart gaged in the laboratory use of hazardous chemi- supplied by the manufacturer of the test cals as defined below. strip; and (2) Where this section applies, it shall supersede, (B) Commercially prepared kits such for laboratories, the requirements of all other as those used in performing pregnancy OSHA health standards in 29 CFR part 1910, sub- tests in which all of the reagents needed part Z, except as follows: to conduct the test are contained in the kit. (i) For any OSHA health standard, only the requirement to limit employee exposure to (b) Definitions—’’Action level” means a concentra- the specific permissible exposure limit shall tion designated in 29 CFR part 1910 for a specific sub- apply for laboratories, unless that particular stance, calculated as an eight (8)-hour time-weighted standard states otherwise or unless the con- average, which initiates certain required activities such ditions of paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section as exposure monitoring and medical surveillance. apply. “Assistant Secretary” means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. (ii) P rohibition of eye and skin contact Department of Labor, or designee. “Carcinogen” (see where specified by any OSHA health stan- “select carcinogen”). dard shall be observed. “Chemical Hygiene Officer” means an employee who is designated by the employer, and who is quali- (iii) Where the action level (or in the absence fied by training or experience, to provide technical of an action level, the permissible exposure guidance in the development and implementation of limit) is routinely exceeded for an OSHA the provisions of the Chemical Hygiene Plan. This regulated substance with exposure monitor- definition is not intended to place limitations on the ing and medical surveillance requirements position description or job classification that the des- paragraphs (d) and (g)(1)(ii) of this section ignated individual shall hold within the employer’s shall apply. organizational structure. “Chemical Hygiene Plan” means a written program (3) This section shall not apply to: developed and implemented by the employer which sets forth procedures, equipment, personal protective (i) Uses of hazardous chemicals which do equipment and work practices that (i) are capable of not meet the definition of laboratory use, protecting employees from the health hazards pre- and in such cases, the employer shall comply sented by hazardous chemicals used in that particular with the relevant standard in 29 CFR part workplace and (ii) meets the requirements of para- 1910, subpart Z, even if such use occurs in a graph (e) of this section. “Combustible liquid” means laboratory. any liquid having a flashpoint at or above 100 deg. F (37.8 deg. C), but below 200 deg. F (93.3 deg. C), except (ii) Laboratory uses of hazardous chemicals any mixture having components with flashpoints of which provide no potential for employee ex- 200 deg. F (93.3 deg. C), or higher, the total volume of posure. Examples of such conditions might which make up 99 percent or more of the total volume include: of the mixture. 289

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290 PRUDENT PRACTICES IN THE LABORATORY “Compressed gas” means: (i) A gas or mixture of tion, absorption of moisture, spontaneous chemi- gases having, in a container, an absolute pressure ex- cal change, or retained heat from manufacturing ceeding 40 psi at 70 deg. F (21.1 deg. C); or (ii) A gas or processing, or which can be ignited readily and or mixture of gases having, in a container, an absolute when ignited burns so vigorously and persistently pressure exceeding 104 psi at 130 deg. F (54.4 deg. C) as to create a serious hazard. A chemical shall be regardless of the pressure at 70 deg. F (21.1 deg. C); considered to be a flammable solid if, when tested or (iii) A liquid having a vapor pressure exceeding 40 by the method described in 16 CFR 1500.44, it psi at 100 deg. F (37.8 deg. C) as determined by ASTM ignites and burns with a self-sustained flame at a D-323-72. rate greater than one-tenth of an inch per second “Designated area” means an area which may be used along its major axis. for work with “select carcinogens,” reproductive toxins or substances which have a high degree of acute toxic- “Flashpoint” means the minimum temperature at ity. A designated area may be the entire laboratory, such which a liquid gives off a vapor in sufficient concentra- as a laboratory hood. tion to ignite when tested as follows: “Emergency” means any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of contain- (i) Tagliabue Closed Tester (See American Na- ers or failure of control equipment which results in an tional Standard Method of Test for Flash Point by uncontrolled release of a hazardous chemical into the Tag Closed Tester, Z11.24-1979 (ASTM D 56-79))- workplace. for liquids with a viscosity of less than 45 Saybolt “Employee” means an individual employed in a Universal Seconds (SUS) at 100 deg. F (37.8 deg. laboratory workplace who may be exposed to hazard- C), that do not contain suspended solids and do ous chemicals in the course of his or her assignments. not have a tendency to form a surface film under “Explosive” means a chemical that causes a sudden, test; or almost instantaneous release of pressure, gas, and heat when subjected to sudden shock, pressure, or high (ii) Pensky-Martens Closed Tester (See American temperature. National Standard Method of Test for Flashpoint “Flammable” means a chemical that falls into one of by Pensky-Martens Closed Tester, Z11.7-1979 the following categories: (ASTM D 93-79))—for liquids with a viscosity equal to or greater than 45 SUS at 100 deg. F (37.8 (i) “Aerosol, flammable” means an aerosol that, deg. C), or that contain suspended solids, or that when tested by the method described in 16 CFR have a tendency to form a surface film under test; 1500.45, yields a flame protection exceeding 18 or inches at full valve opening, or a flashback (a flame extending back to the valve) at any degree (iii) Setaflash Closed Tester (see American Na- of valve opening; tional Standard Method of Test for Flash Point by Setaflash Closed Tester (ASTM D 3278-78)). (ii) “Gas, flammable” means: (A) A gas that, at Organic peroxides, which undergo autoaccelerat- ambient temperature and pressure, forms a flam- ing thermal decomposition, are excluded from any mable mixture with air at a concentration of 13 of the flashpoint determination methods specified percent by volume or less; or (B) A gas that, at above. ambient temperature and pressure, forms a range of flammable mixtures with air wider than 12 “Hazardous chemical” means a chemical for which percent by volume, regardless of the lower limit. there is statistically significant evidence based on at least one study conducted in accordance with es- (iii) “Liquid, flammable” means any liquid hav- tablished scientific principles that acute or chronic ing a flashpoint below 100 deg F (37.8 deg. C), health effects may occur in exposed employees. The except any mixture having components with term “health hazard” includes chemicals which are flashpoints of 100 deg. C) or higher, the total of carcinogens, toxic or highly toxic agents, reproductive which makes up 99 percent or more of the total toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers, hepatotoxins, volume of the mixture. nephrotoxins, neurotoxins, agents which act on the hematopoietic systems, and agents which damage the (iv) “ Solid, flammable” means a solid, other lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes. Appendices than a blasting agent or explosive as defined in A and B of the Hazard Communication Standard (29 1910.109(a), that is liable to cause fire through fric- CFR 1910.1200) provide further guidance in defining

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291 WORKING WITH CHEMICALS the scope of health hazards and determining whether sician for the purpose of determining what medical or not a chemical is to be considered hazardous for examinations or procedures, if any, are appropriate purposes of this standard. in cases where a significant exposure to a hazardous chemical may have taken place. “Laboratory” means a facility where the “laboratory use of hazardous chemicals” occurs. It is a workplace “Organic peroxide” means an organic compound that where relatively small quantities of hazardous chemi- contains the bivalent —O—O— structure and which cals are used on a non-production basis. may be considered to be a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide where one or both of the hydrogen “Laboratory scale” means work with substances in atoms have been replaced by an organic radical. which the containers used for reactions, transfers, and other handling of substances are designed to be easily “Oxidizer” means a chemical other than a blasting and safely manipulated by one person. agent or explosive as defined in 1910.109(a), that initiates or promotes combustion in other materials, “Laboratory scale” excludes those workplaces whose thereby causing fire either of itself or through the re- function is to produce commercial quantities of lease of oxygen or other gases. materials. “Physical hazard” means a chemical for which there “Laboratory-type hood” means a device located in is scientifically valid evidence that it is a combustible a laboratory, enclosure on five sides with a movable liquid, a compressed gas, explosive, flammable, an sash or fixed partial enclosed on the remaining side; organic peroxide, an oxidizer pyrophoric, unstable constructed and maintained to draw air from the (reactive) or water-reactive. laboratory and to prevent or minimize the escape of air contaminants into the laboratory; and allows chemical “Protective laboratory practices and equipment” manipulations to be conducted in the enclosure with- means those laboratory procedures, practices and out insertion of any portion of the employee’s body equipment accepted by laboratory health and safety other than hands and arms. Walk-in hoods with adjust- experts as effective, or that the employer can show to able sashes meet the above definition provided that the be effective, in minimizing the potential for employee sashes are adjusted during use so that the airflow and exposure to hazardous chemicals. the exhaust of air contaminants are not compromised and employees do not work inside the enclosure dur- “Reproductive toxins” means chemicals which affect ing the release of airborne hazardous chemicals. the reproductive chemicals which affect the reproduc- tive capabilities including chromosomal damage (mu- “Laboratory use of hazardous chemicals” means han- tations) and effects on fetuses (teratogenesis). dling or use of such chemicals in which all of the fol- lowing conditions are met: “Select carcinogen” means any substance which meets one of the following criteria: (i) Chemical manipulations are carried out on a “laboratory scale;” (i) It is regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen; or (ii) Multiple chemical procedures or chemicals (ii) It is listed under the category, “known to be are used; carcinogens,” in the Annual Report on Carcino- gens published by the National Toxicology Pro- (iii) The procedures involved are not part of a gram (NTP) (latest edition); or production process, nor in any way simulate a production process; and (iii) It is listed under Group 1 (“carcinogenic to humans”) by the International Agency for Re- (iv) “Protective laboratory practices and equip- search on Cancer Monographs (IARC) (latest edi- ment” are available and in common use to mini- tions); or mize the potential for employee exposure to hazardous chemicals. (iv) It is listed in either Group 2A or 2B by IARC or under the category, “reasonably anticipated “Medical consultation” means a consultation which to be carcinogens” by NTP, and causes statisti- takes place between an employee and a licensed phy- cally significant tumor incidence in experimental

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292 PRUDENT PRACTICES IN THE LABORATORY animals in accordance with any of the following this section is non-mandatory but provides guidance criteria: (A) After inhalation exposure of 6-7 hours to assist employers in the development of the Chemical per day, 5 days per week, for a significant portion Hygiene Plan.) of a lifetime to dosages of less than 10 mg/m(3); (B) After repeated skin application of less than 300 (1) Where hazardous chemicals as defined by (mg/kg of body weight) per week; or (C) After this standard are used in the workplace, the em- oral dosages of less than 50 mg/kg of body weight ployer shall develop and carry out the provisions per day. of a written Chemical Hygiene Plan which is: “Unstable (reactive)” means a chemical which in the (i) Capable of protecting employees from pure state, or as produced or transported, will vigor- health hazards associated with hazardous ously polymerize, decompose, condense, or will be- chemicals in that laboratory and come self-reactive under conditions of shocks, pressure or temperature. (ii) Capable of keeping exposures below the limits specified in paragraph (c) of this “Water-reactive” means a chemical that reacts with wa- section. ter to release a gas that is either flammable or presents a health hazard. (2) The Chemical Hygiene Plan shall be readily available to employees, employee representatives (c) Permissible exposure limits. For laboratory uses and, upon request, to the Assistant Secretary. of OSHA regulated substances, the employer shall assure that laboratory employees’ exposures to such (3) The Chemical Hygiene Plan shall include substances do not exceed the permissible exposure each of the following elements and shall indicate limits specified in 29 CFR part 1910, subpart Z. specific measures that the employer will take to ensure laboratory employee protection: (d) Employee exposure determination (i) Standard operating procedures relevant (1) Initial monitoring. The employer shall mea- to safety and health considerations to be fol- sure the employee’s exposure to any substance lowed when laboratory work involves the use regulated by a standard which requires monitor- of hazardous chemicals; ing if there is reason to believe that exposure levels for that substance routinely exceed the action level (ii) Criteria that the employer will use to (or in the absence of an action level, the PEL). determine and implement control measures to reduce employee exposure to hazardous (2) Periodic monitoring. If the initial monitor- chemicals including engineering controls, ing prescribed by paragraph (d)(1) of this section the use of personal protective equipment and discloses employee exposure over the action level hygiene practices; particular attention shall (or in the absence of an action level, the PEL), be given to the selection of control measures the employer shall immediately comply with the for chemicals that are known to be extremely exposure monitoring provisions of the relevant hazardous; standard. (iii) A requirement that fume hoods and (3) Termination of monitoring. Monitoring may other protective equipment are functioning be terminated in accordance with the relevant properly and specific measures that shall be standard. taken to ensure proper and adequate perfor- mance of such equipment; (4) Employee notification of monitoring results. The employer shall, within 15 working days after (iv) Provisions for employee information the receipt of any monitoring results, notify the and training as prescribed in paragraph (f) of employee of these results in writing either indi- this section; vidually or by posting results in an appropriate location that is accessible to employees. (v) The circumstances under which a par- ticular laboratory operation, procedure or (e) Chemical hygiene plan—General. (Appendix A of activity shall require prior approval from the

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293 APPENDIX A employer or the employer’s designee before appendices which shall be made available to implementation; employees; (vi) Provisions for medical consultation and (ii) the location and availability of the em- medical examinations in accordance with ployer’s Chemical Hygiene Plan; paragraph (g) of this section; (iii) T he permissible exposure limits for (vii) Designation of personnel responsible OSHA regulated substances or recommended for implementation of the Chemical Hygiene exposure limits for other hazardous chemicals Plan including the assignment of a Chemical where there is no applicable OSHA standard; Hygiene Officer, and, if appropriate, estab- lishment of a Chemical Hygiene Committee; (iv) Signs and symptoms associated with and exposures to hazardous chemicals used in the laboratory; and (viii) Provisions for additional employee pro- tection for work with particularly hazardous (v) The location and availability of known substances. These include “select carcino- reference material on the hazards, safe han- gens,” reproductive toxins and substances dling, storage and disposal of hazardous which have a high degree of acute toxicity. chemicals found in the laboratory including, Specific consideration shall be given to the but not limited to, Material Safety Data Sheets following provisions which shall be included received from the chemical supplier. where appropriate: (4) Training. (A) Establishment of a designated area; (i) Employee training shall include: (B) Use of containment devices such as fume hoods or glove boxes; (A) M ethods and observations that may be used to detect the presence or (C) Procedures for safe removal of con- release of a hazardous chemical (such as taminated waste; and monitoring conducted by the employer, continuous monitoring devices, visual (D) Decontamination procedures. appearance or odor of hazardous chemi- cals when being released, etc.); (4) The employer shall review and evaluate the effectiveness of the Chemical Hygiene Plan at least (B) The physical and health hazards of annually and update it as necessary. chemicals in the work area; and (f) Employee information and training. (g) Medical consultation and medical examinations. (1) The employer shall provide employees with (1) The employer shall provide all employees information and training to ensure that they are who work with hazardous chemicals an oppor- apprised of the hazards of chemicals present in tunity to receive medical attention, including any their work area. follow-up examinations which the examining physician determines to be necessary, under the (2) Such information shall be provided at the following circumstances: time of an employee’s initial assignment to a work area where hazardous chemicals are present and (i) Whenever an employee develops signs prior to assignments involving new exposure situ- or symptoms associated with a hazardous ations. The frequency of refresher information and chemical to which the employee may have training shall be determined by the employer. been exposed in the laboratory, the employee shall be provided an opportunity to receive (3) Information. Employees shall be informed of: an appropriate medical examination. (i) The contents of this standard and its (ii) Where exposure monitoring reveals an

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294 PRUDENT PRACTICES IN THE LABORATORY exposure level routinely above the action be revealed in the course of the examina- level (or in the absence of an action level, the tion which may place the employee at PEL) for an OSHA regulated substance for increased risk as a result of exposure to which there are exposure monitoring and a hazardous workplace; and medical surveillance requirements, medical surveillance shall be established for the af- (D) A statement that the employee has fected employee as prescribed by the particu- been informed by the physician of the lar standard. results of the consultation or medical examination and any medical condition (iii) Whenever an event takes place in the that may require further examination or work area such as a spill, leak, explosion or treatment. other occurrence resulting in the likelihood of a hazardous exposure, the affected employee (ii) The written opinion shall not reveal shall be provided an opportunity for a medi- specific findings of diagnoses unrelated to cal consultation. Such consultation shall be occupational exposure. for the purpose of determining the need for a medical examination. (h) Hazard identification. (2) All medical examinations and consultations (1) With respect to labels and material safety data shall be performed by or under the direct supervi- sheets: sion of a licensed physician and shall be provided without cost to the employee, without loss of pay (i) Employers shall ensure that labels on and at a reasonable time and place. incoming containers of hazardous chemicals are not removed or defaced. (3) Information provided to the physician. The employer shall provide the following information (ii) E mployers shall maintain any mate- to the physician: rial safety data sheets that are received with incoming shipments of hazardous chemicals, (i) The identity of the hazardous chem - and ensure that they are readily accessible to ical(s) to which the employee may have been laboratory employees. exposed; (2) T he following provisions shall apply to (ii) A description of the conditions under chemical substances developed in the laboratory: which the exposure occurred including quan- titative exposure data, if available; and (i) If the composition of the chemical sub- stance which is produced exclusively for (iii) A description of the signs and symp- the laboratory’s use is known, the employer toms of exposure that the employee is expe- shall determine if it is a hazardous chemical riencing, if any. as defined in paragraph (b) of this section. If the chemical is determined to be hazardous, (4) Physician’s written opinion. the employer shall provide appropriate train- ing as required under paragraph (f) of this (i) F or examination or consultation re - section. quired under this standard, the employer shall obtain a written opinion from the ex- (ii) If the chemical produced is a byprod- amining physician which shall include the uct whose composition is not known, the following: employer shall assume that the substance is hazardous and shall implement paragraph (e) (A) Any recommendation for further of this section. medical follow-up; (iii) If the chemical substance is produced (B) The results of the medical examina- for another user outside of the laboratory, tion and any associated tests; the employer shall comply with the Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.120) (C) Any medical condition which may

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295 APPENDIX A including the requirements for preparation of A. General Principles material safety data sheets and labeling. 1. Minimize All Chemical Exposures (i) Use of respirators. Where the use of respirators 2. Avoid Underestimation of Risk is necessary to maintain exposure below permissible 3. Provide Adequate Ventilation exposure limits, the employer shall provide, at no cost 4. Institute a Chemical Hygiene Program to the employee, the proper respiratory equipment. 5. Observe the PELs and TLVs Respirators shall be selected and used in accordance with the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.134. B. Responsibilities (j) Record-keeping. 1. Chief Executive Officer 2. Supervisor of Administrative Unit (1) The employer shall establish and maintain 3. Chemical Hygiene Officer for each employee an accurate record of any mea- 4. Laboratory Supervisor surements taken to monitor employee exposures 5. Project Director and any medical consultation and examinations 6. Laboratory Worker including tests or written opinions required by this standard. C. The Laboratory Facility (2) The employer shall assure that such records 1. Design are kept, transferred, and made available in ac- 2. Maintenance cordance with 29 CFR 1910.20. 3. Usage 4. Ventilation (k) Dates. D. Components of the Chemical Hygiene Plan (1) Effective date. This section shall become ef- fective May 1, 1990. 1. Basic Rules and Procedures 2. C hemical Procurement, Distribution, and (2) Start-up dates. Storage 3. Environmental Monitoring (i) Employers shall have developed and 4. Housekeeping, Maintenance and Inspections implemented a written Chemical Hygiene 5. Medical Program Plan no later than January 31, 1991. 6. Personal Protective Apparel and Equipment 7. Records (ii) Paragraph (a)(2) of this section shall not 8. Signs and Labels take effect until the employer has developed 9. Spills and Accidents and implemented a written Chemical Hy- 10. Training and Information giene Plan. 11. Waste Disposal (1) Appendices. The information contained in E. General Procedures for Working with Chemicals the appendices is not intended, by itself, to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or to 1. General Rules for All Laboratory Work with detract from any existing obligation. Chemicals 2. Allergens and Embryotoxins 3. C hemicals of Moderate Chronic or High Appendix A To 1910.1450—National Research Coun- Acute Toxicity cil Recommendations Concerning Chemical Hygiene 4. Chemicals of High Chronic Toxicity In Laboratories (Non-Mandatory) 5. A nimal Work with Chemicals of High Chronic Toxicity Table Of Contents Foreword F. Safety Recommendations Corresponding Sections of the Standard and This G. Material Safety Data Sheets Appendix

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296 PRUDENT PRACTICES IN THE LABORATORY Foreword Paragraph and topic in laboratory standard appendix section Relevant As guidance for each employer’s development (e)(3)(ii) Criteria to be used for implementation of D of an appropriate laboratory Chemical Hygiene Plan, measures to reduce exposures. the following non-mandatory recommendations are (e)(3)(iii) Fume hood performance. C4b provided. They were extracted from “Prudent Practices (e)(3)(iv) Employee information and training D10, D9 for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories” (including emergency procedures). (referred to below as “Prudent Practices”), which was (e)(3)(v) Requirements for prior approval of laboratory E2b, E4b published in 1981 by the National Research Council activities. and is available from the National Academy Press, (e)(3)(vi) Medical consultation and medical D5, E4f 2101 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington DC 20418. examinations. “Prudent Practices” is cited because of its wide distri- bution and acceptance and because of its preparation (e)(3)(vii) Chemical hygiene responsibilities. B by members of the laboratory community through the (e)(3)(viii) Special precautions for work with E2, E3, E4 sponsorship of the National Research Council. How- particularly hazardous substances. ever, none of the recommendations given here will modify any requirements of the laboratory standard. In this appendix, those recommendations directed This appendix merely presents pertinent recommen- primarily at administrators and supervisors are given dations from “Prudent Practices,” organized into a in sections A-D. Those recommendations of primary form convenient for quick reference during operation concern to employees who are actually handling labo- of a laboratory facility and during development and ratory chemicals are given in section E. (References to application of a Chemical Hygiene Plan. Users of this page numbers in “Prudent Practices” are given in appendix should consult “Prudent Practices” for a parentheses.) more extended presentation and justification for each recommendation. A. General Principles for Work with Laboratory “Prudent Practices” deals with both safety and Chemicals chemical hazards while the laboratory standard is concerned primarily with chemical hazards. There- In addition to the more detailed recommenda- fore, only those recommendations directed primarily tions listed below in sections B-E, “Prudent Practices” toward control of toxic exposures are cited in this ap- expresses certain general principles, including the pendix, with the term “chemical hygiene” being substi- following: tuted for the word “safety.” However, since conditions producing or threatening physical injury often pose 1. It is prudent to minimize all chemical expo- toxic risks as well, page references concerning major sures. Because few laboratory chemicals are with- categories of safety hazards in the laboratory are given out hazards, general precautions for handling all in section F. The recommendations from “Prudent Prac- laboratory chemicals should be adopted, rather tices” have been paraphrased, combined, or otherwise than specific guidelines for particular chemicals reorganized, and headings have been added. However, (2,10). Skin contact with chemicals should be their sense has not been changed. avoided as a cardinal rule (198). 2. Avoid underestimation of risk. Even for sub- Corresponding Sections of the Standard and This stances of no known significant hazard, exposure Appendix should be minimized; for work with substances which present special hazards, special precautions The following table is given for the convenience of should be taken (10, 37, 38). One should assume those who are developing a Chemical Hygiene Plan that any mixture will be more toxic than its most which will satisfy the requirements of paragraph (e) toxic component (30, 103) and that all substances of the standard. It indicates those sections of this ap- of unknown toxicity are toxic (3, 34). pendix which are most pertinent to each of the sections 3. Provide adequate ventilation. The best way of paragraph (e) and related paragraphs. to prevent exposure to airborne substances is to prevent their escape into the working atmosphere Paragraph and topic in laboratory standard by use of hoods and other ventilation devices (32, appendix section Relevant 198). (e)(3)(i) Standard operating procedures for handling C, D, E 4. I nstitute a chemical hygiene program. A toxic chemicals. mandatory chemical hygiene program designed

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297 APPENDIX A to minimize exposures is needed; it should be a (e) Ensure that facilities and training for use regular, continuing effort, not merely a standby of any material being ordered are adequate or short-term activity (6,11). Its recommendations (215). should be followed in academic teaching labora- 5. Project director or director of other specific tories as well as by full-time laboratory workers operation, who has primary responsibility for (13). chemical hygiene procedures for that operation 5. Observe the PELs, TLVs. The Permissible (7). Exposure Limits of OSHA and the Threshold 6. Laboratory worker, who is responsible for: Limit Values of the American Conference of Gov- (a) Planning and conducting each operation ernmental Industrial Hygienists should not be in accordance with the institutional chemical exceeded (13). hygiene procedures (7, 21, 22, 230); and (b) D eveloping good personal chemical hygiene habits (22). B. Chemical Hygiene Responsibilities Responsibility for chemical hygiene rests at all levels C. The Laboratory Facility (6, 11, 21) including the: 1. Chief executive officer, who has ultimate 1. Design. The laboratory facility should have: responsibility for chemical hygiene within the in- (a) A n appropriate general ventilation stitution and must, with other administrators, pro- system (see C4 below) with air intakes and vide continuing support for institutional chemical exhausts located so as to avoid intake of con- hygiene (7, 11). taminated air (194); 2. Supervisor of the department or other ad- (b) Adequate, well-ventilated stockrooms/ ministrative unit, who is responsible for chemical storerooms (218, 219); hygiene in that unit (7). (c) Laboratory hoods and sinks (12, 162); 3. Chemical hygiene officer(s), whose appoint- (d) Other safety equipment including eye- ment is essential (7) and who must: wash fountains and drench showers (162, (a) Work with administrators and other 169); and employees to develop and (e) Arrangements for waste disposal (12, (b) Monitor procurement, use, and disposal 240). of chemicals used in the lab (8); 2. M aintenance. Chemical-hygiene-related (c) See that appropriate audits are main- equipment (hoods, incinerator, etc.) should un- tained (8); dergo continual appraisal and be modified if (d) Help project directors develop precau- inadequate (11, 12). tions and adequate facilities (10); 3. Usage. The work conducted (10) and its scale (e) Know the current legal requirements (12) must be appropriate to the physical facilities concerning regulated substances (50); and available and, especially, to the quality of ventila- (f) Seek ways to improve the chemical hy- tion (13). giene program (8, 11). 4. Ventilation— 4. Laboratory supervisor, who has overall re- (a) G eneral laboratory ventilation. This sponsibility for chemical hygiene in the laboratory system should: Provide a source of air for (21) including responsibility to: breathing and for input to local ventilation (a) Ensure that workers know and follow devices (199); it should not be relied on for the chemical hygiene rules, that protective protection from toxic substances released into equipment is available and in working order, the laboratory (198); ensure that laboratory air and that appropriate training has been pro- is continually replaced, preventing increase of vided (21, 22); air concentrations of toxic substances during (b) Provide regular, formal chemical hy - the working day (194); direct air flow into the giene and housekeeping inspections includ- laboratory from non-laboratory areas and out ing routine inspections of emergency equip- to the exterior of the building (194). ment (21, 171); (b) Hoods. A laboratory hood with 2.5 lin- (c) Know the current legal requirements ear feet of hood space per person should be concerning regulated substances (50, 231); provided for every 2 workers if they spend (d) Determine the required levels of protec- most of their time working with chemicals tive apparel and equipment (156, 160, 162); (199); each hood should have a continuous and monitoring device to allow convenient con-

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298 PRUDENT PRACTICES IN THE LABORATORY firmation of adequate hood performance information on proper handling, storage, and before use (200, 209). If this is not possible, disposal should be known to those who will be work with substances of unknown toxicity involved (215, 216). No container should be ac- should be avoided (13) or other types of local cepted without an adequate identifying label ventilation devices should be provided (199). (216). Preferably, all substances should be received See pp. 201-206 for a discussion of hood de- in a central location (216). sign, construction, and evaluation. (b) Stockrooms/storerooms. Toxic substances (c) Other local ventilation devices. Venti- should be segregated in a well-identified area lated storage cabinets, canopy hoods, snor- with local exhaust ventilation (221). Chemicals kels, etc. should be provided as needed (199). which are highly toxic (227) or other chemicals Each canopy hood and snorkel should have a whose containers have been opened should be in separate exhaust duct (207). unbreakable secondary containers (219). Stored (d) Special ventilation areas. Exhaust air chemicals should be examined periodically (at from glove boxes and isolation rooms should least annually) for replacement, deterioration, be passed through scrubbers or other treat- and container integrity (218-19). Stockrooms/ ment before release into the regular exhaust storerooms should not be used as preparation or system (208). Cold rooms and warm rooms repackaging areas, should be open during normal should have provisions for rapid escape and working hours, and should be controlled by one for escape in the event of electrical failure person (219). (209). (c) Distribution. When chemicals are hand car- (e) Modifications. Any alteration of the ven- ried, the container should be placed in an outside tilation system should be made only if thor- container or bucket. Freight-only elevators should ough testing indicates that worker protection be used if possible (223). from airborne toxic substances will continue (d) L aboratory storage. Amounts permitted to be adequate (12, 193, 204). should be as small as practical. Storage on bench (f) P erformance. Rate: 4-12 room air tops and in hoods is inadvisable. Exposure to heat changes/hour is normally adequate general or direct sunlight should be avoided. Periodic ventilation if local exhaust systems such as inventories should be conducted, with unneeded hoods are used as the primary method of items being discarded or returned to the store- control (194). room/stockroom (225-6, 229). (g) Quality. General air flow should not be turbulent and should be relatively uniform 3. Environmental Monitoring throughout the laboratory, with no high Regular instrumental monitoring of airborne concen- velocity or static areas (194, 195); airflow trations is not usually justified or practical in laborato- into and within the hood should not be ex- ries but may be appropriate when testing or redesign- cessively turbulent (200); hood face velocity ing hoods or other ventilation devices (12) or when a should be adequate (typically 60-100 lfm) highly toxic substance is stored or used regularly (e.g., (200, 204). 3 times/week) (13). (h) E valuation. Quality and quantity of ventilation should be evaluated on instal- 4. Housekeeping, Maintenance, and Inspections lation (202), regularly monitored (at least (a) Cleaning. Floors should be cleaned regularly every 3 months) (6, 12, 14, 195), and reevalu- (24). ated whenever a change in local ventilation (b) Inspections. Formal housekeeping and chem- devices is made (12, 195, 207). See pp. 195- ical hygiene inspections should be held at least 198 for methods of evaluation and for cal- quarterly (6, 21) for units which have frequent culation of estimated airborne contaminant personnel changes and semiannually for others; concentrations. informal inspections should be continual (21). (c) Maintenance. Eye wash fountains should be inspected at intervals of not less than 3 months (6). D. Components of the Chemical Hygiene Plan Respirators for routine use should be inspected 1. Basic Rules and Procedures (Recommendations periodically by the laboratory supervisor (169). for these are given in section E, below.) Other safety equipment should be inspected 2. Chemical Procurement, Distribution, and Storage regularly (e.g., every 3-6 months) (6, 24, 171). (a) Procurement. Before a substance is received,

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299 APPENDIX A Procedures to prevent restarting of out-of-service (a) Emergency telephone numbers of emergency equipment should be established (25). personnel/facilities, supervisors, and laboratory (d) Passageways. Stairways and hallways should workers (28); not be used as storage areas (24). Access to exits, (b) Identity labels, showing contents of contain- emergency equipment, and utility controls should ers (including waste receptacles) and associated never be blocked (24). hazards (27, 48); (c) Location signs for safety showers, eyewash 5. Medical Program stations, other safety and first aid equipment, exits (a) Compliance with regulations. Regular medi- (27) and areas where food and beverage consump- cal surveillance should be established to the extent tion and storage are permitted (24); and required by regulations (12). (d) Warnings at areas or equipment where special (b) Routine surveillance. Anyone whose work or unusual hazards exist (27). involves regular and frequent handling of toxi- cologically significant quantities of a chemical 9. Spills and Accidents should consult a qualified physician to determine (a) A written emergency plan should be estab- on an individual basis whether a regular schedule lished and communicated to all personnel; it of medical surveillance is desirable (11, 50). should include procedures for ventilation failure (c) First aid. Personnel trained in first aid should (200), evacuation, medical care, reporting, and be available during working hours and an emer- drills (172). gency room with medical personnel should be (b) There should be an alarm system to alert nearby (173). See pp. 176-178 for description of people in all parts of the facility including isola- some emergency first aid procedures. tion areas such as cold rooms (172). (c) A spill control policy should be developed 6. Protective Apparel and Equipment and should include consideration of prevention, These should include for each laboratory: containment, cleanup, and reporting (175). (a) Protective apparel compatible with the re- (d) All accidents or near accidents should be quired degree of protection for substances being carefully analyzed with the results distributed to handled (158-161); all who might benefit (8, 28). (b) A n easily accessible drench-type safety shower (162, 169); 10. Information and Training Program (c) An eyewash fountain (162) (a) Aim: To assure that all individuals at risk are (d) A fire extinguisher (162-164); adequately informed about the work in the labora- (e) R espiratory protection (164-9), fire alarm tory, its risks, and what to do if an accident occurs and telephone for emergency use (162) should be (5, 15). available nearby; and (f) Other items designated (b) Emergency and Personal Protection Train- by the laboratory supervisor (156, 160). ing: Every laboratory worker should know the location and proper use of available protective 7. Records apparel and equipment (154, 169). Some of the (a) Accident records should be written and re- full-time personnel of the laboratory should be tained (174). trained in the proper use of emergency equipment (b) Chemical Hygiene Plan records should docu- and procedures (6). Such training as well as first ment that the facilities and precautions were com- aid instruction should be available to (154) and patible with current knowledge and regulations encouraged for (176) everyone who might need it. (7). (c) Receiving and stockroom/storeroom person- (c) Inventory and usage records for high-risk nel should know about hazards, handling equip- substances should be kept as specified in section ment, protective apparel, and relevant regulations E3e below. (217). (d) Medical records should be retained by the (d) Frequency of Training: The training and edu- institution in accordance with the requirements cation program should be a regular, continuing of state and federal regulations (12). activity-not simply an annual presentation (15). (e) L iterature/Consultation: Literature and 8. Signs and Labels consulting advice concerning chemical hygiene Prominent signs and labels of the following types should be readily available to laboratory person- should be posted:

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300 PRUDENT PRACTICES IN THE LABORATORY nel, who should be encouraged to use these infor- area with water (33, 172, 178) and remove any mation resources (14). contaminated clothing (172, 178). If symptoms persist after washing, seek medical attention 11. Waste Disposal Program (33). Clean-up. Promptly clean up spills, using (a) Aim: To assure that minimal harm to people, appropriate protective apparel and equipment other organisms, and the environment will result and proper disposal (24, 33). See pp. 233-237 for from the disposal of waste laboratory chemicals specific clean-up recommendations. (5). (b) Avoidance of ‘’routine” exposure: Develop (b) Content (14, 232, 233, 240): The waste disposal and encourage safe habits (23); avoid unneces- program should specify how waste is to be col- sary exposure to chemicals by any route (23). Do lected, segregated, stored, and transported and not smell or taste chemicals (32). Vent apparatus include consideration of what materials can be which may discharge toxic chemicals (vacuum incinerated. Transport from the institution must pumps, distillation columns, etc.) into local ex- be in accordance with DOT regulations (244). haust devices (199). Inspect gloves (157) and test (c) Discarding Chemical Stocks: Unlabeled con- glove boxes (208) before use. Do not allow release tainers of chemicals and solutions should undergo of toxic substances in cold rooms and warm prompt disposal; if partially used, they should not rooms, since these have contained recirculated be opened (24, 27). Before a worker’s employment atmospheres (209). in the laboratory ends, chemicals for which that (c) Choice of chemicals: Use only those chemicals person was responsible should be discarded or for which the quality of the available ventilation returned to storage (226). system is appropriate (13). (d) Frequency of Disposal: Waste should be re- (d) Eating, smoking, etc.: Avoid eating, drinking, moved from laboratories to a central waste storage smoking, gum chewing, or application of cosmet- area at least once per week and from the central ics in areas where laboratory chemicals are pres- waste storage area at regular intervals (14). ent (22, 24, 32, 40); wash hands before conducting (e) Method of Disposal: Incineration in an en- these activities (23, 24). Avoid storage, handling, vironmentally acceptable manner is the most or consumption of food or beverages in storage practical disposal method for combustible labora- areas, refrigerators, glassware or utensils which tory waste (14, 238, 241). Indiscriminate disposal are also used for laboratory operations (23, 24, by pouring waste chemicals down the drain 226). (14,231,242) or adding them to mixed refuse for (e) Equipment and glassware: Handle and store landfill burial is unacceptable (14). Hoods should laboratory glassware with care to avoid damage; not be used as a means of disposal for volatile do not use damaged glassware (25). Use extra care chemicals (40, 200). Disposal by recycling (233, with Dewar flasks and other evacuated glass ap- 243) or chemical decontamination (40, 230) should paratus; shield or wrap them to contain chemicals be used when possible. and fragments should implosion occur (25). Use equipment only for its designed purpose (23, 26). (f) Exiting: Wash areas of exposed skin well be- E. Basic Rules and Procedures for Working with fore leaving the laboratory (23). Chemicals (g) Horseplay: Avoid practical jokes or other The Chemical Hygiene Plan should require that labora- behavior which might confuse, startle or distract tory workers know and follow its rules and procedures. another worker (23). In addition to the procedures of the sub programs (h) Mouth suction: Do not use mouth suction for mentioned above, these should include the rules listed pipeting or starting a siphon (23, 32). below. (i) Personal apparel: Confine long hair and loose clothing (23, 158). Wear shoes at all times in the 1. General Rules laboratory but do not wear sandals, perforated The following should be used for essentially all labora- shoes, or sneakers (158). tory work with chemicals: (j) Personal housekeeping: Keep the work area (a) Accidents and Spills—Eye Contact: Promptly clean and uncluttered, with chemicals and equip- flush eyes with water for a prolonged period (15 ment being properly labeled and stored; clean up minutes) and seek medical attention (33, 172). the work area on completion of an operation or at Ingestion: Encourage the victim to drink large the end of each day (24). amounts of water (178). (k) Personal protection: Assure that appropriate Skin Contact: Promptly flush the affected eye protection (154-156) is worn by all persons,

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301 APPENDIX A including visitors, where chemicals are stored or ment plants, create fire or explosion hazards, handled (22, 23, 33, 154). Wear appropriate gloves cause structural damage or obstruct flow (242). when the potential for contact with toxic materi- (q) Working alone: Avoid working alone in a als exists (157); inspect the gloves before each building; do not work alone in a laboratory if the use, wash them before removal, and replace them procedures being conducted are hazardous (28). periodically (157). (A table of resistance to chemi- cals of common glove materials is given on p.159). 2. Working with Allergens and Embryotoxins Use appropriate (164-168) respiratory equipment (a) Allergens (examples: diazomethane, isocya- when air contaminant concentrations are not suf- nates, bichromates): Wear suitable gloves to pre- ficiently restricted by engineering controls (164-5), vent hand contact with allergens or substances of inspecting the respirator before use (169). Use unknown allergenic activity (35). any other protective and emergency apparel and (b) Embryotoxins (34-5) (examples: organomer- equipment as appropriate (22, 157-162). Avoid use curials, lead compounds, formamide): If you of contact lenses in the laboratory unless neces- are a woman of childbearing age, handle these sary; if they are used, inform supervisor so special substances only in a hood whose satisfactory per- precautions can be taken (155). Remove laboratory formance has been confirmed, using appropriate coats immediately on significant contamination protective apparel (especially gloves) to prevent (161). skin contact. Review each use of these materials (l) Planning: Seek information and advice about with the research supervisor and review con- hazards (7), plan appropriate protective proce- tinuing uses annually or whenever a procedural dures, and plan positioning of equipment before change is made. Store these substances, properly beginning any new operation (22, 23). labeled, in an adequately ventilated area in an (m) Unattended operations: Leave lights on, place unbreakable secondary container. Notify supervi- an appropriate sign on the door, and provide for sors of all incidents of exposure or spills; consult containment of toxic substances in the event of a qualified physician when appropriate. failure of a utility service (such as cooling water) to an unattended operation (27, 128). 3. Work with Chemicals of Moderate Chronic or (n) Use of hood: Use the hood for operations High Acute Toxicity which might result in release of toxic chemical Examples: diisopropylfluorophosphate (41), hydroflu- vapors or dust (198-9). As a rule of thumb, use a oric acid (43), hydrogen cyanide (45). Supplemental hood or other local ventilation device when work- rules to be followed in addition to those mentioned ing with any appreciably volatile substance with above (Procedure B of “Prudent Practices”, pp. 39-41): a TLV of less than 50 ppm (13). Confirm adequate (a) Aim: To minimize exposure to these toxic hood performance before use; keep hood closed substances by any route using all reasonable pre- at all times except when adjustments within the cautions (39). hood are being made (200); keep materials stored (b) Applicability: These precautions are appro- in hoods to a minimum and do not allow them to priate for substances with moderate chronic or block vents or air flow (200). Leave the hood “on” high acute toxicity used in significant quantities when it is not in active use if toxic substances are (39). stored in it or if it is uncertain whether adequate (c) Location: Use and store these substances only general laboratory ventilation will be maintained in areas of restricted access with special warning when it is “off” (200). signs (40, 229). Always use a hood (previously (o) Vigilance: Be alert to unsafe conditions and evaluated to confirm adequate performance with see that they are corrected when detected (22). a face velocity of at least 60 linear feet per minute) (p) Waste disposal: Assure that the plan for each (40) or other containment device for procedures laboratory operation includes plans and training which may result in the generation of aerosols or for waste disposal (230). Deposit chemical waste vapors containing the substance (39); trap released in appropriately labeled receptacles and follow vapors to prevent their discharge with the hood all other waste disposal procedures of the Chemi- exhaust (40). cal Hygiene Plan (22, 24). Do not discharge to the (d) Personal protection: Always avoid skin con- sewer concentrated acids or bases (231); highly tact by use of gloves and long sleeves (and other toxic, malodorous, or lachrymatory substances protective apparel as appropriate) (39). Always (231); or any substances which might interfere wash hands and arms immediately after working with the biological activity of waste water treat- with these materials (40). (e) Records: Maintain records of the amounts of

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302 PRUDENT PRACTICES IN THE LABORATORY these materials on hand, amounts used, and the (e) Housekeeping: Use a wet mop or a vacuum names of the workers involved (40, 229). cleaner equipped with a HEPA filter instead of dry (f) Prevention of spills and accidents: Be pre- sweeping if the toxic substance was a dry powder pared for accidents and spills (41). Assure that (50). at least 2 people are present at all times if a (f) Medical surveillance: If using toxicologically compound in use is highly toxic or of unknown significant quantities of such a substance on a toxicity (39). Store breakable containers of these regular basis (e.g., 3 times per week), consult a substances in chemically resistant trays; also work qualified physician concerning desirability of and mount apparatus above such trays or cover regular medical surveillance (50). work and storage surfaces with removable, ab- (g) R ecords: Keep accurate records of the sorbent, plastic backed paper (40). If a major spill amounts of these substances stored (229) and occurs outside the hood, evacuate the area; assure used, the dates of use, and names of users (48). that cleanup personnel wear suitable protective (h) Signs and labels: Assure that the controlled apparel and equipment (41). area is conspicuously marked with warning and (g) Waste: Thoroughly decontaminate or in - restricted access signs (49) and that all containers cinerate contaminated clothing or shoes (41). If of these substances are appropriately labeled with possible, chemically decontaminate by chemical identity and warning labels (48). conversion (40). Store contaminated waste in (i) Spills: Assure that contingency plans, equip- closed, suitably labeled, impervious containers ment, and materials to minimize exposures of (for liquids, in glass or plastic bottles half-filled people and property in case of accident are avail- with vermiculite) (40). able (233-4). (j) Storage: Store containers of these chemicals 4. Work with Chemicals of High Chronic Toxicity only in a ventilated, limited access (48, 227, 229) Examples: dimethylmercury and nickel carbonyl (48), area in appropriately labeled, unbreakable, chemi- benzo-a-pyrene (51), N-nitrosodiethylamine (54), other cally resistant, secondary containers (48, 229). human carcinogens or substances with high carcino- (k) Glove boxes: For a negative pressure glove genic potency in animals (38). Further supplemental box, ventilation rate must be at least 2 volume rules to be followed, in addition to all those mentioned changes/ hour and pressure at least 0.5 inches above, for work with substances of known high chronic of water (48). For a positive pressure glove box, toxicity (in quantities above a few milligrams to a few thoroughly check for leaks before each use (49). grams, depending on the substance) (47). (Procedure A In either case, trap the exit gases or filter them of “Prudent Practices” pp. 47-50.) through a HEPA filter and then release them into (a) Access: Conduct all transfers and work with the hood (49). these substances in a “controlled area”: a restricted (l) Waste: Use chemical decontamination when- access hood, glove box, or portion of a lab, desig- ever possible; ensure that containers of contami- nated for use of highly toxic substances, for which nated waste (including washings from contami- all people with access are aware of the substances nated flasks) are transferred from the controlled being used and necessary precautions (48). area in a secondary container under the supervi- (b) Approvals: Prepare a plan for use and dis- sion of authorized personnel (49, 50, 233). posal of these materials and obtain the approval of the laboratory supervisor (48). 5. Animal Work with Chemicals of High Chronic (c) Non-contamination/Decontamination: Pro- Toxicity tect vacuum pumps against contamination by (a) Access: For large scale studies, special facili- scrubbers or HEPA filters and vent them into ties with restricted access are preferable (56). the hood (49). Decontaminate vacuum pumps or (b) Administration of the toxic substance: When other contaminated equipment, including glass- possible, administer the substance by injection or ware, in the hood before removing them from the gavage instead of in the diet. If administration is in controlled area (49, 50). Decontaminate the con- the diet, use a caging system under negative pres- trolled area before normal work is resumed there sure or under laminar air flow directed toward (50). HEPA filters (56). (d) Exiting: On leaving a controlled area, remove (c) A erosol suppression: Devise procedures any protective apparel (placing it in an appro- which minimize formation and dispersal of con- priate, labeled container) and thoroughly wash taminated aerosols, including those from food, hands, forearms, face, and neck (49). urine, and feces (e.g., use HEPA filtered vacuum

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303 APPENDIX A equipment for cleaning, moisten contaminated *Tert-butyl hydroperoxide (148) bedding before removal from the cage, mix diets *Carbon disulfide (116) in closed containers in a hood) (55, 56). Carbon monoxide (92) (d) Personal protection: When working in the *Carbon tetrachloride (118) a nimal room, wear plastic or rubber gloves, *Chlorine (119) fully buttoned laboratory coat or jumpsuit and, Chlorine trifluoride (94) if needed because of incomplete suppression of *Chloroform (121) aerosols, other apparel and equipment (shoe and Chloromethane (93) head coverings, respirator) (56). *Diethyl ether (122) (e) Waste disposal: Dispose of contaminated Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (41) animal tissues and excreta by incineration if the Hydrogen chloride (98) available incinerator can convert the contaminant *Hydrogen cyanide (133) to non-toxic products (238); otherwise, package *Hydrogen sulfide (135) the waste appropriately for burial in an EPA- Mercury and compounds (52) approved site (239). *Methanol (137) *Morpholine (138) *Nickel carbonyl (99) F. Safety Recommendations *Nitrobenzene (139) The above recommendations from “Prudent Practices” Nitrogen dioxide (100) do not include those which are directed primarily to- N-nitrosodiethylamine (54) ward prevention of physical injury rather than toxic ex- *Peracetic acid (141) posure. However, failure of precautions against injury *Phenol (142) will often have the secondary effect of causing toxic *Phosgene (143) exposures. Therefore, we list below page references *Pyridine (144) for recommendations concerning some of the major *Sodium azide (145) categories of safety hazards which also have implica- *Sodium cyanide (147) tions for chemical hygiene: Sulfur dioxide (101) *Trichloroethylene (149) 1. Corrosive agents: (35-6) *Vinyl chloride (150) 2. Electrically powered laboratory apparatus: (179-92) 29 CFR 1910.1450 App. B References (Non-Mandatory) 3. Fires, explosions: (26, 57-74, 162-4, 174-5, 219- Appendix B to 1910.1450—References (Non-Mandatory) 20, 226-7) 4. Low temperature procedures: (26, 88) The following references are provided to assist the 5. Pressurized and vacuum operations (includ- employer in the development of a Chemical Hygiene ing use of compressed gas cylinders): (27, 75-101) Plan. The materials listed below are offered as nonman- datory guidance. References listed here do not imply specific endorsement of a book, opinion, technique, G. Material Safety Data Sheets policy or a specific solution for a safety or health prob- Material safety data sheets are presented in “Prudent lem. Other references not listed here may better meet Practices” for the chemicals listed below. (Asterisks the needs of a specific laboratory. denote that comprehensive material safety data sheets are provided.) (a) MATERIALS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF *Acetyl peroxide (105) THE CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN *Acrolein (106) 1. American Chemical Society, Safety in *Acrylonitrile Academic Chemistry Laboratories, 4th edi- Ammonia (anhydrous) (91) tion, 1985. *Aniline (109) 2. Fawcett, H.H. and W.S. Wood, Safety *Benzene (110) and Accident Prevention in Chemical Opera- *Benzo[a]pyrene (112) tions, 2nd edition, Wiley-Interscience, New *Bis(chloromethyl) ether (113) York, 1982. Boron trichloride (91) 3. F lury, Patricia A., Environmental Boron trifluoride (92) Health and Safety in the Hospital Labora- Bromine (114)

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304 PRUDENT PRACTICES IN THE LABORATORY tory, Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Spring- 6. Code of Federal Regulations, 29 CFR field, IL, 1978. part 1910 subpart Z. U.S. Govt. Printing Of- 4. G reen, Michael E. and Turk, Amos, fice, Washington, DC 20402 (latest edition). Safety in Working with Chemicals, Macmil- 7. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of lan Publishing Co., NY, 1978. the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man, 5. Kaufman, James A., Laboratory Safety World Health Organization Publications Cen- Guidelines, Dow Chemical Co., Box 1713, ter, 49 Sheridan Avenue, Albany, New York Midland, MI 48640, 1977. 12210 (latest editions). 6. N ational Institutes of Health, NIH 8. NIOSH/OSHA Pocket Guide to Chemi- Guidelines for the Laboratory Use of Chemi- cal Hazards. NIOSH Pub. No. 85-114, U.S. cal Carcinogens, NIH Pub. No.812385, GPO, Government Printing Office, Washington, Washington, DC 20402, 1981. DC, 1985 (or latest edition). 7. N ational Research Council, Prudent 9. O ccupational Health Guidelines, P ractices for Disposal of Chemicals from NIOSH/OSHA. NIOSH Pub. No. 81-123, U.S. Laboratories, National Academy Press, Wash- Government Printing Office, Washington, ington, DC, 1983. DC, 1981. 8. N ational Research Council, Prudent 10. Patty, F.A., Industrial Hygiene and Toxi- Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals cology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, in Laboratories, National Academy Press, NY (Five Volumes). Washington, DC, 1981. 11. Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical 9. Renfrew, Malcolm, Ed., Safety in the Substances, U.S. Department of Health and Chemical Laboratory, Vol. IV, J. Chem. Ed., Human Services, Public Health Service, Cen- American Chemical Society, Easlon, PA, 1981. ters for Disease Control, National Institute 10. Steere, Norman V., Ed., Safety in the for Occupational Safety and Health, Revised Chemical Laboratory, J. Chem. Ed. American Annually, for sale from Superintendent of Chemical Society, Easlon, PA, 18042, Vol. I, Documents, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Wash- 1967, Vol. II, 1971, Vol. III, 1974. ington, DC 20402. 11. Steere, Norman V., Handbook of Labo- 12. The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of ratory Safety, the Chemical Rubber Company, Chemicals and Drugs. Merck and Company Cleveland, OH, 1971. Inc., Rahway, NJ, 1976 (or latest edition). 12. Young, Jay A., Ed., Improving Safety in 13. Sax, N.I. Dangerous Properties of In- the Chemical Laboratory, John Wiley & Sons, dustrial Materials, 5th edition, Van Nostrand Inc., New York, 1987. Reinhold, NY, 1979. 14. Sittig, Marshall, Handbook of Toxic and (b) HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES Hazardous Chemicals, Noyes Publications, INFORMATION: Park Ridge, NJ, 1981. 1. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Threshold Limit Values (c) Information on Ventilation: for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents 1. American Conference of Governmental in the Workroom Environment with Intended Industrial Hygienists. Industrial Ventilation Changes, 6500 Glenway Avenue, Bldg. D-7, (latest edition), 6500 Glenway Avenue, Bldg. Cincinnati, OH 45211-4438. D-7, Cincinnati, OH 45211-4438. 2. A nnual Report on Carcinogens, Na - 2. American National Standards Institute, tional Toxicology Program U.S. Department Inc. American National Standards Funda- of Health and Human Services, Public Health mentals Governing the Design and Operation Service, U.S. Government Printing Office, of Local Exhaust Systems ANSI Z 9.2-1979, Washington, DC (latest edition). American National Standards Institute, NY 3. Best Company, Best Safety Directory, 1979. Vols. I and II, Oldwick, NJ, 1981. 3. Imad, A.P. and Watson, C.L. Ventilation 4. Bretherick, L., Handbook of Reactive Index: An Easy Way to Decide about Hazard- C hemical Hazards, 2nd edition, Butter- ous Liquids, Professional Safety, pp. 15-18, worths, London, 1979. April 1980. 5. Bretherick, L., Hazards in the Chemi- 4. National Fire Protection Association, cal Laboratory, 3rd edition, Royal Society of Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemi- Chemistry, London, 1986.

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305 CHAPTER TITLE cals NFPA-45, 1982. Safety Standard for Labo- 1. American National Standards Institute ratories in Health Related Institutions, NFPA, (ANSI), 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018. 56c, 1980. Fire Protection Guide on Hazard- 2. American Society for Testing and Mate- ous Materials, 7th edition, 1978. National Fire rials (ASTM), 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, PA 19103. Quincy, MA 02269. 5. Scientific Apparatus Makers Associa- (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget tion (SAMA), Standard for Laboratory Fume under control number 1218-0131) Hoods, SAMA LF7-1980, 1101 16th Street, [55 FR 3327, Jan. 31, 1990] NW, Washington, DC 20036. (d) I NFORMATION ON AVAILABILITY OF REFERENCED MATERIAL

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