GHS recognizes 16 types of physical hazards, 10 types of health hazard, and an environmental hazard.

Physical hazards include

   explosives;

   flammable gases;

   flammable aerosols;

   oxidizing gases;

   gases under pressure;

   flammable liquids;

   flammable solids;

   self-reactive substances;

   pyrophoric liquids;

   pyrophoric solids;

   self-heating substances;

   substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases;

   oxidizing liquids;

   oxidizing solids;

   organic peroxides; and

   corrosive to metals.

Health hazards include

   acute toxicity,

   skin corrosion or irritation,

   serious eye damage or eye irritation,

   respiratory or skin sensitization,

   germ cell mutagenicity,

   carcinogenicity,

   reproductive toxicology,

   target organ systemic toxicity—single exposure,

   target organ systemic toxicity—repeated exposure, and

   aspiration hazard.

Environmental hazard includes

   Hazardous to the aquatic environment:

ο   acute aquatic toxicity or

ο   chronic aquatic toxicity with

   bioaccumulation potential

   rapid degradability.

In addition to the labeling requirements, GHS requires a standard format for Safety Data Sheets (SDS) that accompany hazardous chemicals. Note the change in terminology from MSDS. SDSs must contain a minimum of 16 elements:

1.   identification,

2.   hazard(s) identification,

3.   composition/information on ingredients,

4.   first-aid measures,

5.   firefighting measures,

6.   accidental release measures,

7.   handling and storage,

8.   exposure controls/personal protection,

9.   physical and chemical properties,

10.   stability and reactivity,

11.   toxicological information,

12.   ecological information,

13.   disposal considerations,

14.   transport information,

15.   regulatory information, and

16.   other information.

As with current MSDSs, these sheets are intended to inform employers and personnel of the hazards associated with the chemicals they are handling, and to act as a resource for management of the chemicals. Trained personnel should evaluate the information and use it to develop safety and emergency response policies, protocols, and procedures that are tailored to the workplace or laboratory.

4.B.4 Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries (LCSSs)

As discussed above, although MSDSs are invaluable resources, they suffer some limitations as applied to risk assessment in the specific context of the laboratory. Committee-generated LCSSs, which are tailored to trained laboratory personnel, are on the CD accompanying this book. As indicated in their name, LCSSs provide information on chemicals in the context of laboratory use. These documents are summaries and are not intended to be comprehensive or to fulfill the needs of all conceivable users of a chemical. In conjunction with the guidelines described in this chapter, the LCSS gives essential information required to assess the risks associated with the use of a particular chemical in the laboratory.

The format, organization, and contents of LCSSs are described in detail in the introduction on the CD. Included in an LCSS are the key physical, chemical, and toxicological data necessary to evaluate the relative degree of hazard posed by a substance. LCSSs also contain a concise critical discussion, presented in a style readily understandable to trained laboratory personnel, of the toxicity, flammability, reactivity, and explosivity of the chemical; recommendations for the handling, storage, and disposal of the title substance; and first-aid and emergency response procedures.

The CD contains LCSSs for 91 chemical substances. Several criteria were used in selecting these chemicals, the most important consideration being whether the



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