UPDATED VERSION

Prudent Practices
in the
Laboratory

Handling and Management
of Chemical Hazards

Committee on Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: An Update

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

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UPDATED VERSION Committee on Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: An Update Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Division on Earth and Life Studies THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS • 500 Fifth Street, N.W. • Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG02-08ER15932; the National Institutes of Health under contract number N01-OD-4-2139, TO #200; and the National Science Foundation under grant number CHE-0740356. Additional support was received from Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.; the American Chemical Society; E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company; Eastman Chemical Company; the Howard Hughes Medical Institute; and PPG Industries. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Prudent practices in the laboratory : handling and management of chemical hazards / Committee on Prudent Practices in the Laboratory, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, Division on Earth and Life Studies. — Updated ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-309-13864-2 (hardback) ISBN-10: 0-309-13864-7 (hardback) ISBN-13: 978-0-309-13865-9 (pdf) ISBN-10: 0-309-13865-5 (pdf) 1. Hazardous substances. 2. Chemicals—Safety measures. 3. Hazardous wastes. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Prudent Practices in the Laboratory. T55.3.H3P78 2011 660’.2804—dc22 2010047731 Additional copies of this report are available from The National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibil- ity given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON PRUDENT PRACTICES IN THE LABORATORY: AN UPDATE Co-Chairs William F. Carroll, Jr., Occidental Chemical Corporation, Dallas, Texas BarBara l. Foster, West Virginia University, Morgantown MeMbers W. emmett Barkley, Proven Practices, LLC, Bethesda, Maryland susan H. Cook, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri kennetH P. Fivizzani, Nalco Company, Naperville, Illinois roBin izzo, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey kennetH a. JaCoBson, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland karen mauPins, Eli Lilly & Company Drug Discovery, Indianapolis, Indiana kennetH moloy, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Delaware randall B. ogle, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee JoHn Palassis, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Cincinnati, Ohio russell W. PHiFer, WC Environmental, LLC, West Chester, Pennsylvania Peter a. reinHardt, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut levi t. tHomPson, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan leyte WinField, Spelman College, Atlanta, Georgia NatioNal researCh CouNCil staff dorotHy zolandz, Director andreW CroWtHer, Postdoctoral Fellow kevin kuHn, Mirzayan Fellow katHryn HugHes, Responsible Staff Officer tina m. masCiangioli, Senior Program Officer kela masters, Senior Program Assistant (through October 2008) JessiCa Pullen, Administrative Coordinator sHeena siddiqui, Research Associate sally stanField, Editor lynelle vidale, Program Assistant v

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BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY Co-chairs ryan r. dirkx, Arkema Inc., King of Prussia, Pennsylvania C. dale Poulter, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah Members zHenan Bao, Stanford University, Stanford, California roBert g. Bergman, University of California, Berkeley, California Henry e. Bryndza, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Delaware emily Carter, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey PaBlo deBenedetti, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey mary Jane Hagenson, Chevron Phillips Chemical Company LLC, The Woodlands, Texas Carol J. Henry, George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services, Washington, District of Columbia Jill HruBy, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico CHarles e. kolB, Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts JoseF miCHl, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado mark a. ratner, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois roBert e. roBerts, Institute for Defense Analyses, Washington, District of Columbia darlene J. solomon, Agilent Laboratories, Santa Clara, California erik J. sorensen, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey Jean tom, Bristol-Myers Squibb, New York, New York William C. trogler, University of California, San Diego, California david Walt, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts National Research Council Staff dorotHy zolandz, Director katHryn HugHes, Program Officer tina m. masCiangioli, Senior Program Officer eriCka m. mCgoWan, Program Officer amanda Cline, Administrative Assistant sHeena siddiqui, Research Associate raCHel yanCey, Program Assistant vi

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Preface In the early 1980s, the National Research Council (NRC) produced two major reports on laboratory safety and laboratory waste disposal: Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories (1981) and Prudent Practices for Disposal of Chemicals from Laboratories (1983). In 1995, the NRC’s Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology updated, combined, and revised the earlier studies in producing Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals . More than 10 years later, the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology initiated an update and revision of the 1995 edition of Prudent Practices. In 2007, the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and the National Institutes of Health, with additional support from the American Chemi- cal Society, Eastman Kodak Company, E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., and PPG Industries, commissioned a study by NRC to “review and update the 1995 publi- cation, Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals .” The Committee on Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: An Update was charged to • review and update the 1995 publication, Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals; • modify the existing content and add content as required to reflect new fields and developments that have occurred since the previous publication; • emphasize the concept of a “culture of safety” and how that culture can be established and nurtured; • consider laboratory operations and the adverse impacts those operations might have on the surrounding environment and community. The Committee on Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: An Update was estab- lished in June 2008. The first meeting was held in August 2008, and two subsequent meetings were held, one in October 2008 and the other in February 2009. All meet- ings were held in Washington, D.C. The original motivation for drafting Prudent Practices 1981 and Prudent Practices 1983 was to provide an authoritative reference on the handling and disposal of chemicals at the laboratory level. These volumes not only served as a guide to laboratory workers, but also offered prudent guidelines for the development of regulatory policy by government agencies concerned with safety in the workplace and protection of the environment. Pertinent health-related parts of Prudent Practices 1981 are incorporated in a non- mandatory section of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Laboratory Standard (29 CFR § 1910.1450, “Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories,” reprinted in this edition as Appendix A). OSHA’s purpose was to provide guidance for developing and implementing its required Chemical Hygiene Plan. Since their original publication in the early 1980s, these reports have been distributed widely both nationally and internationally. In 1992, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and the World Health Organization published Chemical Safety Matters, a document based on Prudent Practices 1981 and Prudent Practices 1983, for wide international use. The next volume (Prudent Practices 1995) responded to societal and technical developments that were driving significant change in the laboratory culture and laboratory operations relative to safety, health, and environmental protection. vii

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viii PREFACE The major drivers for this new culture of laboratory safety included an increase in regulations regarding laboratory practice, technical advances in hazard and risk evaluation, and an improvement in the understanding of the elements necessary for an effective culture of safety. Building on this history, the updated (2011) edition of Prudent Practices in the Laboratory also considers technical, regulatory, and societal changes that have occurred since the last publication. As a reflection of some of those changes, it provides information on new topics, including • emergency planning, • laboratory security, • handling of nanomaterials, and • an expanded discussion of environment, health, and safety management systems. Throughout the development of this book, the committee engaged in discussions with subject matter experts and industrial and academic researchers and teachers. The goal of these discussions was to determine what the various constituencies considered to be prudent practices for laboratory operations. Public support for the laboratory use of chemicals depends on compliance with regulatory laws, respect by organizations and individuals of the concerns of the public, and the open acknowledgment and management of the risks to personnel who work in laboratory environments. Addressing these issues is the joint respon- sibility of everyone who handles or makes decisions about chemicals, from ship- ping and receiving clerks to laboratory personnel and managers, environmental health and safety staff, and institutional administrators. The writers of the preface to the 1995 edition stated that, “This shared responsi- bility is now a fact of laboratory work as inexorable as the properties of the chemi- cals that are being handled,” and we restate that sentiment here. Organizations and institutions must create environments where safe laboratory practice is standard practice. Each individual influences the “culture of safety” in the laboratory. All of us should recognize that the safety of each of us depends on teamwork and personal responsibility as well as the knowledge of chemistry. Faculty, research advisors, and teachers should note that a vital component of chemical education is teaching students how to identify the risks and hazards in a laboratory. Such education serves scientists well in their ultimate careers in government, industry, academe, and the health sciences. The promotion of a “culture of safety” has come a long way since 1995; however, in some ways, the “culture of chemistry” is still at odds with that of safety. Some of us may have witnessed unsafe behavior or minor accidents, and yet, rather than viewing these incidents with concern and as opportunities to modify practices and behavior, we often have failed to act upon these “teachable moments.” Ironically, however, we shudder when, even today, we hear of accidents—some fatal—that might have been our near misses. Rigorous practitioners argue that, in principle, all accidental injuries are prevent- able if systems and attitudes are in place to prevent them. Even in these days of technological advancements, tracking of near misses and adaptation of systems to eradicate them is inconsistent across the enterprise. Within the research and teach- ing communities, less rigorous practitioners seem to accept different safety toler- ances for different environments. It is common during a discussion of laboratory safety to hear the statement, “Industry is much stricter on safety than academia. Things happen in academic research labs that would never be allowed where I work.” This is often accompanied by a “when I was a student . . .” story. The path to failure illustrated by this colloquy should be obvious and unacceptable. To fully

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ix PREFACE implement a culture of safety, even with improved technology, everyone who is associated with the laboratory must be mindful of maintaining a safe environment. Prudent Practices (1995) has been used worldwide and has served as a leading reference book for laboratory practice. The committee hopes that this new edition of the book will expand upon that tradition, and that this edition will assist the readers to provide a safe and healthy laboratory environment in which to teach, learn, and conduct research.

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Acknowledgments Many technical experts provided input to this book. Their involvement, by speaking to the committee or by providing technical reviews of material prepared by the committee, greatly enhanced this work. The Committee on Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: An Update thanks the following people for their contributions to this revision of Prudent Practices. Chyree Batton, Spelman College Kevin Charbonneau, Yale University Jasmaine Coleman, Spelman College Dennis Deziel, Department of Homeland Security Michael Ellenbecker, Toxic Use Reduction Institute, University of Massachusetts–Lowell Drew Endy, Stanford University Dennis Fantin, California Polytechnic State University Charles Geraci, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Lawrence Gibbs, Stanford University Laura Hodson, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Barbara Karn, Environmental Protection Agency Cathleen King, Yale University Robert Klein, Yale University Stanley K. Lengerich, Eli Lilly & Company Thomas J. Lentz, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Clyde Miller, BASF Corporation John Miller, Department of Energy Richard W. Niemeier, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Todd Pagano, Rochester Institute of Technology Tammy Stemen, Yale University Cary Supalo, Pennsylvania State University Candice Tsai, Toxic Use Reduction Institute, University of Massachusetts–Lowell Bryana Williams, Spelman College xi

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following for their review of this report: Robert J. Alaimo, Proctor & Gamble Pharmaceuticals, retired Bruce Backus, Washington University Janet Baum, Independent Consultant L. Casey Chosewood, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Rick L. Danheiser, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Louis J. DiBerardinis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Charles L. Geraci, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Lawrence M. Gibbs, Stanford University Stephanie Graham-Sims, West Virginia University Scott C. Jackson, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company Donald Lucas, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Edward H. Rau, National Institutes of Health Robin D. Rogers, University of Alabama Timothy J. Scott, The Dow Chemical Company Robert W. Shaw, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, retired Erik A. Talley, Cornell University William C. Trogler, University of California, San Diego Douglas B. Walters, KPC, Inc. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Stanley Pine, University of California, San Diego. Ap- pointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authors and the institution. xiii

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Contents 1 1 The Culture of Laboratory Safety 1.A Introduction, 2 1.B The Culture of Laboratory Safety, 2 1.C Responsibility and Accountability for Laboratory Safety, 2 1.D Special Safety Considerations in Academic Laboratories, 3 1.E The Safety Culture in Industrial and Governmental Laboratories, 4 1.F Other Factors That Influence Laboratory Safety Programs, 5 1.G Laboratory Security, 7 1.H Structure of the Book, 7 1.I Summary, 7 9 2 Environmental Health and Safety Management System 2.A Introduction, 10 2.B Chemical Hygiene Plan, 14 2.C Safety Rules and Policies, 15 2.D Chemical Management Program, 20 2.E Laboratory Inspection Program, 23 2.F Emergency Procedures, 27 2.G Employee Safety Training Program, 29 31 3 Emergency Planning 3.A Introduction, 33 3.B Preplanning, 33 3.C Leadership and Priorities, 37 3.D Communication During an Emergency, 38 3.E Evacuations, 39 3.F Shelter in Place, 30 3.G Loss of Power, 40 3.H Institutional or Building Closure, 41 3.I Emergency Affecting the Community, 42 3.J Fire or Loss of Laboratory, 42 3.K Drills and Exercises, 43 3.L Outside Responders and Resources, 43 45 4 Evaluating Hazards and Assessing Risks in the Laboratory 4.A Introduction, 47 4.B Sources of Information, 47 4.C Toxic Effects of Laboratory Chemicals, 53 4.D Flammable, Reactive, and Explosive Hazards, 65 4.E Physical Hazards, 74 4.F Nanomaterials, 77 4.G Biohazards, 79 4.H Hazards from Radioactivity, 79 83 5 Management of Chemicals 5.A Introduction, 84 5.B Green Chemistry for Every Laboratory, 84 5.C Acquisition of Chemicals, 88 xv

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xvi CONTENTS 5.D Inventory and Tracking of Chemicals, 90 5.E Storage of Chemicals in Stockrooms and Laboratories, 94 5.F Transfer, Transport, and Shipment of Chemicals, 101 105 6 Working with Chemicals 6.A Introduction, 107 6.B Prudent Planning, 107 6.C General Procedures for Working with Hazardous Chemicals, 108 6.D Working with Substances of High Toxicity, 122 6.E Working with Biohazardous and Radioactive Materials, 126 6.F Working with Flammable Chemicals, 127 6.G Working with Highly Reactive or Explosive Chemicals, 130 6.H Working with Compressed Gases, 140 6.I Working with Microwave Ovens, 141 6.J Working with Nanoparticles, 141 147 7 Working with Laboratory Equipment 7.A Introduction, 149 7.B Working with Water-Cooled Equipment, 149 7.C Working with Electrically Powered Laboratory Equipment, 149 7.D Working with Compressed Gases, 164 7.E Working with High or Low Pressures and Temperatures, 170 7.F Using Personal Protective, Safety, and Emergency Equipment, 175 7.G Emergency Procedures, 181 183 8 Management of Waste 8.A Introduction, 185 8.B Chemical Hazardous Waste, 186 8.C Multihazardous Waste, 201 8.D Procedures for the Laboratory-Scale Treatment of Surplus and Waste Chemicals, 209 211 9 Laboratory Facilities 9.A Introduction, 213 9.B General Laboratory Design Considerations, 213 9.C Laboratory Ventilation, 219 9.D Room Pressure Control Systems, 242 9.E Special Systems, 243 9.F Maintenance of Ventilation Systems, 248 9.G Ventilation System Management Program, 249 9.H Safety and Sustainability, 250 9.I Laboratory Decommissioning, 253 255 10 Laboratory Security 10.A Introduction, 256 10.B Security Basics, 256 10.C Systems Integration, 259 10.D Dual-Use Hazard of Laboratory Materials, 259 10.E Laboratory Security Requirements, 260 10.F Security Vulnerability Assessment, 261 10.G Dual-Use Security, 262 10.H Security Plans, 262

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xvii CONTENTS 265 11 Safety Laws and Standards Pertinent to Laboratories 11.A Introduction, 267 11.B Regulation of Laboratory Design and Construction, 272 11.C Regulation of Chemicals Used in Laboratories, 273 11.D Regulation of Biohazards and Radioactive Materials Used in Laboratories, 276 11.E Environmental Regulations Pertaining to Laboratories, 276 11.F Shipping, Export, and Import of Laboratory Materials, 278 11.G Laboratory Accidents, Spills, Releases, and Incidents, 281 283 Bibliography Appendixes 289 A OSHA Laboratory Standard 307 B Statement of Task 309 C Committee Member Biographies Index Supplemental Materials on CD 1. Sample Inspection Checklist 2. ACS Security and Vulnerability Checklist for Academic and Small Chemical Laboratory Facilities 3. Chemical Compatibility Storage Guide 4. Chemical Compatibility Storage Codes 5. Sample Incident Report Form 6. Laboratory Closeout Checklist 7. Laboratory Emergency Information Poster 8. Laboratory Hazard Assessment Checklist 9. Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR Parts 261 and 262) Standards Applicable to Generators of Hazardous Waste; Alternative Requirements for Hazardous Waste Determination and Accumulation of Unwanted Material at Laboratories Owned by Colleges and Universities and Other Eligible Academic Entities Formally Affiliated With Colleges and Universities; Final Rule 10. Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries 11 Blank Form for Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries 12. Procedures for the Laboratory Scale Treatment of Surplus and Waste Chemicals 13. Electronic Copy of Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards

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Tables, Figures, Boxes, and Vignettes FIGURES 2.1 Overview of environmental health and safety management system, 11 2.2 Accident report form, 30 3.1 Impact/Likelihood of occurrence mapping, 34 4.1 GHS placards for labeling containers of hazardous chemicals, 49 4.2 A simple representation of possible dose-response curves, 56 4.3 The fire triangle, 67 4.4 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) system for classification of hazards, 68 4.5 U.S. Department of Energy graded exposure risk for nanomaterials, 78 5.1 Compatible storage group classification system, 97 5.2 Recommended inner packaging label for on-site transfer of nanomaterials, 103 6.1 U.S. Department of Energy graded exposure risk for nanomaterials, 143 7.1 Representative design for a three-wire grounded outlet, 150 7.2 Standard wiring convention for 110-V electric power to equipment, 151 7.3 Schematic diagram of a properly wired variable autotransformer, 155 7.4 Example of a column purification system, 160 8.1 Flowchart for categorizing unknown chemicals for waste disposal, 188 8.2 Example of Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest, 200 9.1 Open versus closed laboratory design, 215 9.2 Specifications for barrier-free safety showers and eyewash units, 218 9.3 Laminar versus turbulent velocity profile, 226 9.4 Effect of baffles on face velocity profile in a laboratory chemical hood, 227 9.5 Effect of sash placement on airflow in a nonbypass laboratory chemical hood, 229 9.6 Effect of sash placement on airflow in a bypass laboratory chemical hood, 230 9.7 Diagram of a typical benchtop laboratory chemical hood, 232 9.8 Diagram of a typical distillation hood, 233 9.9 Diagram of a typical walk-in laboratory chemical hood, 234 9.10 Schematic of a typical laboratory chemical hood scrubber, 235 9.11 Fume extractor or snorkel, 238 9.12 Diagrams of typical slot hoods, 238 9.13 Example of a Class II biosafety cabinet, 246 9.14 Examples of postings for laboratory chemical hoods, 250 9.15 Carbon inventory of a research university campus, 251 10.1 Concentric circles of physical protection, 257 xix

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xx TABLES, FIGURES, BOXES, AND VIGNETTES TABLES 4.1 Acute Toxicity Hazard Level, 59 4.2 Probable Lethal Dose for Humans, 60 4.3 Examples of Compounds with a High Level of Acute Toxicity, 60 4.4 NFPA Fire Hazard Ratings, Flash Points (FP), Boiling Points (bp), Ignition Temperatures, and Flammable Limits of Some Common Laboratory Chemicals, 67 4.5 Additional Symbols Seen in the NFPA Diamond, 69 4.6 Examples of Oxidants, 69 4.7 Functional Groups in Some Explosive Compounds, 71 4.8 Classes of Chemicals That Can Form Peroxides, 72 4.9 Types of Compounds Known to Autooxidize to Form Peroxides, 72 Examples of β Emitters, 81 4.10 4.11 Radiation Quality Factors, 81 4.12 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Dose Limits, 82 5.1 Examples of Compatible Storage Groups, 96 5.2 Storage Limits for Flammable and Combustible Liquids for Laboratories with Sprinkler System, 99 5.3 Container Size for Storage of Flammable and Combustible Liquids, 99 7.1 Summary of Magnetic Field Effects, 163 8.1 Assignment of Tasks for Waste Handling, 194 8.2 Classes and Functional Groupings of Organic Chemicals for Which There Are Existing Treatment Methods, 210 8.3 Classes and Functional Groupings of Inorganic Chemicals for Which There Are Existing Treatment Methods, 210 9.1 Some Activities, Equipment, or Materials That May Require Separation from the Main Laboratory, 215 9.2 Examples of Equipment That Can Be Shared Between Researchers and Research Groups, 216 9.3 Laboratory Engineering Controls for Personal Protection, 220 9.4 US FED STD 209E Clean Room Classification, 243 9.5 ISO Classification of Air Cleanliness for Clean Rooms, 244 9.6 Comparison of Biosafety Cabinet Characteristics, 247 10.1 Security Features for Security Level 1, 263 10.2 Security Features for Security Level 2, 264 10.3 Security Features for Security Level 3, 264 11.1 Federal Safety Laws and Regulations That Pertain to Laboratories, 270 11.2 Chemicals Covered by Specific OSHA Standards, 273 BOXES 1.1 Tips for Encouraging a Culture of Safety Within an Academic Laboratory, 5 2.1 Chemical Hygiene Responsibilities in a Typical Academic Institution, 16 2.2 Chemical Hygiene Responsibilities in a Typical Industry Research Facility, 18

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xxi TABLES, FIGURES, BOXES, AND VIGNETTES 2.3 Chemical Hygiene Responsibilities in a Typical Governmental Laboratory, 20 2.4 Excerpt from an Inspection Checklist, 27 3.1 Continuity of Laboratory Operations Checklist, 41 4.1 Quick Guide for Toxicity Risk Assessment of Chemicals, 55 4.2 Quick Guide to Risk Assessment for Physical, Flammable, Explosive, and Reactive Hazards in the Laboratory, 66 4.3 Quick Guide to Risk Assessment for Biological Hazards in the Laboratory, 80 6.1 A Simple Qualitative Method to Verify Adequate Laboratory Chemical Hood Ventilation, 109 9.1 Quick Guide for Maximizing Efficiency of Laboratory Chemical Hoods, 223 9.2 Quick Guide for Working in Environmental Rooms, 245 VIGNETTES 3.1 Preplanning reduces the impact of a fire on continuity of operations, 43 5.1 Pollution prevention reduces solvent waste, 85 6.1 Finger laceration from broken tubing connector, 115 6.2 Runaway reaction during scale-up, 115 6.3 Solvent fire, 128 6.4 Fluorine inhalation, 137 7.1 Oil bath fire as a result of a loose temperature sensor, 156 7.2 Muffle furnace fire, 157 7.3 Centrifuge explosion from use of improper rotor, 161 7.4 Hydrogen leak from jammed cylinder cap, 166 7.5 Injury while working on equipment under pressure, 171 9.1 Appropriate use of personal protective equipment in shared spaces, 214 9.2 Sustainability considerations in laboratory ventilation design, 251

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