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Global Issues in Water, Sanitation, and Health: Workshop Summary
FIGURE 4-14 Relationship between urban water access, national water stress, and national GDP per capita.
SOURCE: UN-Habitat (2003).
to imply similar reduced access to water at the household level, regardless of the GDP per capita. Apart from a variety of other possible explanations, it is crucial to bear in mind that domestic drinking water supply and sanitation make up a very small fraction of any nation’s demand for water resources.
Solutions to Boundary Problems?
Boundaries at different levels can be helpful in identifying problems within environmental services. Water provision by a utility to the neighbourhood level, but not to the individual household, invites the creation of an informal sector that may or may not operate as an extortionate cartel. The interface between differing levels can also be critical where the volumes in and out of the interface do not match. In the case of solid waste management, waste may be carried to a neighbourhood bin, but not picked up from that bin by the municipal service.