University, illustrated how to understand landscape architecture, soil processes, and upscaling. He noted that processes have to be considered in situ and in context, and reiterated the challenges that spatial variability poses to delineating processes. He highlighted the geophysical tools that can be used for upscaling, and suggested that pattern recognition may assist in characterizing spatial variability and its effects. Lin emphasized the interrelationship of soil and water and the need to integrate soil science and hydrology.
Susan Moran, U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service Southwest Watershed Research Center, discussed the role of remote sensing in the upscaling of soil processes. She highlighted a quote from Izaurralde’s paper: “Data acquisition and availability has been a key impediment for applying models across spatial scales.” She noted that the use of satellite imaging for soil processes is a known tool, but using it for upscaling is a new technique. Using remote sensing for data at a larger scale may be less accurate, but it is better than no data at all. In quoting Izaurralde’s comment on the inherent complexity of upscaling soil processes to regional scales, she questioned whether there is an optimal scale for remote sensing. The data are available; they just need to be used, which can lead to breakthroughs in soil modeling. She stated that the biggest breakthrough in upscaling of soil models to a regional level will be made when satellite-derived model parameters become available to everyone at no cost.
Kenneth Kemner, a physicist from Argonne National Laboratory, discussed how X-ray imaging and spectroscopy are being used to make in situ measurements of soil biological and physicochemical properties and processes. He began with an introduction to synchrotrons and X-ray physics, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray microscopy, giving examples of the use of X-ray micro(spectro)scopy to investigate soil bio(geo)chemical processes. He provided an overview of some techniques that soil scientists could incorporate into their research. He noted how his research has been an integrated multidisciplinary process, working with several scientists from other fields. The goal of his presentation was to spur some interest in how this type of research could be applied to soils.
He provided several points to explain why hard X-rays could be used to investigate soil biogeochemical processes: Hard X-rays (i.e., greater than