Appendix B
Speakers and Discussants*

Ralph J. Cicerone, President, National Academy of Sciences

An atmospheric scientist, Ralph J. Cicerone became president of the National Academy of Sciences in 2005. His research in atmospheric chemistry and climate change has involved him in shaping science and environmental policy at the highest levels, nationally and internationally. His research was recognized on the citation for the 1995 Nobel Prize in chemistry award to his University of California, Irvine, colleague F. Sherwood Rowland. In 1997 he received a United Nations Environment Program Ozone Award for research in protecting the earth’s ozone layer. The Franklin Institute recognized his outstanding contributions to the understanding of greenhouse gases and ozone depletion and his fundamental research in biogeochemistry by selecting Cicerone as the 1999 laureate for the Bower Award and Prize for Achievement in Science. In 2001 he led a National Academy of Sciences study of the current state of climate change and its impact on the environment and human health. The American Geophysical Union awarded him its 2002 Roger Revelle Medal for outstanding research contributions to the understanding of Earth’s atmospheric processes, biogeochemical cycles, or other key elements of the climate system. In 2004 the World Cultural Council hon-

*

Listed in same order as agenda. (These biosketches were current at the time of the workshop.)



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Appendix B Speakers and Discussants* Ralph J. Cicerone, President, National Academy of Sciences An atmospheric scientist, Ralph J. Cicerone became president of the National Academy of Sciences in 2005. His research in atmospheric chemistry and climate change has involved him in shaping science and environmental policy at the highest levels, nationally and internation- ally. His research was recognized on the citation for the 1995 Nobel Prize in chemistry award to his University of California, Irvine, colleague F. Sherwood Rowland. In 1997 he received a United Nations Environment Program Ozone Award for research in protecting the earth’s ozone layer. The Franklin Institute recognized his outstanding contributions to the understanding of greenhouse gases and ozone depletion and his funda- mental research in biogeochemistry by selecting Cicerone as the 1999 laureate for the Bower Award and Prize for Achievement in Science. In 2001 he led a National Academy of Sciences study of the current state of climate change and its impact on the environment and human health. The American Geophysical Union awarded him its 2002 Roger Revelle Medal for outstanding research contributions to the understanding of Earth’s atmospheric processes, biogeochemical cycles, or other key ele- ments of the climate system. In 2004 the World Cultural Council hon- *Listed in same order as agenda. (These biosketches were current at the time of the workshop.) 

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 APPENDIX B ored him with the Albert Einstein World Award in Science. He received his bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he was also a varsity baseball player, and both his master’s and doctoral degrees from the University of Illinois in electrical engineering, with a minor in physics. Brent Clothier, Horticultural and Food Research Institute of New Zealand (HortResearch) Brent Clothier is a soil physicist and environmental scientist who is sci- ence leader of the Sustainable Land Use team within HortResearch. In his 30-year research career, he has published more than 165 scientific papers on the movement and fate of water and chemicals in production systems and the environment. He has led projects on risk assessments of land-use practices and the protection of soils, surface water, and groundwater from contamination, both in New Zealand and in the Pacific islands. Clothier is the program leader of New Zealand’s major soil-science research program SLURI (Sustainable Land Use Research Initiative). He has a B.Sc. (Honors) from Canterbury University, and a Ph.D. and D.Sc. in soil science from Massey University. He is a fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand, the Soil Science Society of America, the American Society of Agronomy, the New Zealand Soil Science Society, and the American Geophysical Union. He received the Don and Betty Kirkham Soil Physics Award from the Soil Science Society of America in 2000. Susan Trumbore, University of California, Irvine (UCI) Susan Trumbore is professor of earth system science and director of the UCI branch of the UC Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Phys- ics. She received a B.S. in geology from the University of Delaware and a Ph.D. in geology and geochemistry from Columbia University’s Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory (1989). After postdoctoral work at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and Lawrence Liver- more National Laboratory, she joined the Earth system science faculty at UCI as a founding member in 1991. Dr. Trumbore studies how the Earth’s natural exchanges of carbon among ocean, land, and atmosphere are altered by human activity. She uses the distribution of radiocarbon added to the atmosphere in the 1960s during nuclear weapons testing to determine the timescale of carbon exchange between ecosystems (plants and soils) and the atmosphere. With Ellen Druffel and John Southon,

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 APPENDIX B she established the W. M. Keck Carbon Cycle Accelerator Mass Spec- trometry Facility at UCI in 2002 to expand the use of radiocarbon in studies of the carbon cycle. Professor Trumbore was the recipient of a National Science Foundation National Young Investigator Award in 1993. She was the first president of the Biogeosciences Section of the American Geophysical Union (AGU), and is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the AGU. Janet S. Herman, University of Virginia Janet S. Herman is full professor in the Department of Environmental Sci- ences at the University of Virginia and is director of the interdepartmental Program of Interdisciplinary Research in Contaminant Hydrogeology. She obtained her B.S. in geological sciences and her Ph.D. in geochemistry (1982), both from the Pennsylvania State University. Her numerous pub- lications contribute to understanding the chemical evolution of natural waters through water-rock interactions. Her research is focused on the com- plex interactions among hydrological transport, microbiological processes, and geochemical reactions in the groundwater environment. Dr. Herman has attracted approximately $4 million in research funding to the University of Virginia from federal agencies, including the National Science Founda- tion, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Energy, and the U.S. Geological Survey. Recently, Dr. Herman served as chair of the Hydrogeology Division of the Geological Society of America and as chair of the F. W. Clarke Award Committee of the Geochemical Society. Notable honors include election to fellow of the Geological Society of America in 1994 and receipt of the Presidential Award for Excellence for Mentoring in Science, Engineering, and Mathematics in 1996. John M. Norman, University of Wisconsin, Madison John M. Norman has been professor of soil science and also professor of atmospheric and oceanic science at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, since 1988. Following his Ph.D. in 1971 from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, he was an associate professor of meteorology at the Pennsylvania State University until 1978 and professor of agronomy at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, until 1988. He conducts biophysical research involving studies of the interaction between plants and their environment, including measurements of soil, plant, and atmospheric characteristics and integra- tive modeling of the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Applications to ecology, agriculture, forestry, and meteorology have included plant productivity

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 APPENDIX B and water-use efficiency, integrated pest management, irrigation water use, precision agriculture, agrochemical leaching losses, remote sensing, and measurement and modeling of soil surface carbon dioxide fluxes. Recent research focuses on the sustainability of agricultural production and the im - portance of soil in the spatial and temporal distribution of crop production and environmental consequences. He is a fellow of the American Society of Agronomy and the Crop Science Society of America and received the American Meteorology Society Award for Outstanding Biometeorologist in 2004. Scott Fendorf, Stanford University Scott Fendorf is an associate professor of soil and environmental biogeo- chemistry in the School of Earth Sciences at Stanford University. He con- ducted his graduate work in soil chemistry at the University of California, Davis (M.S., 1990), and the University of Delaware (Ph.D., 1992) and then joined the soil science faculty at the University of Idaho in 1993. After spending six years (1993-1998) in Idaho, Professor Fendorf joined the School of Earth Sciences at Stanford University in 1999 to initiate a program in soil biogeochemistry. Broadly, he is interested in defining chemical environments that develop as a result of biotic and abiotic pro- cesses within physically complex and dynamic media. His research focuses on the chemical and biological processes that drive the fate and transport of trace elements such as arsenic and chromium within soils, sediments, and surface waters. A thrust of his research, for example, is presently on deciphering the processes responsible for arsenic release into aquifers throughout Southeast Asia. gary M. Pierzynski, Kansas State University Gary M. Pierzynski is a professor of soil and environmental chemistry in the Department of Agronomy at Kansas State University. Dr. Pierzynski’s research interests include trace element chemistry, remediation of trace element-contaminated soils, phosphorus bioavailability, water quality, risk assessment, and land application of by-products. Professional activities in- clude serving as soil and environmental division chair for the Soil Science Society of America; U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Re- search Initiative panel manager for the Soils and Soil Biology Program; vice chairperson for the Soil Remediation Subcommission of the International Union of Soil Sciences; cochair of the USDA Chemistry and Bioavailability of Waste Constituents in Soils regional research committee; peer reviewer

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 APPENDIX B for the Environmental Protection Agency’s risk assessment efforts; member and chair of the technical and organizing committees for the International Conference on the Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements Series; and technical advisor for citizen groups in the Tri-State Mining Region. Dr. Pierzynski teaches courses on environmental quality, plant nutrient sources, soil and environmental chemistry, and advanced soil chemistry. He is a fellow of the American Society of Agronomy and the Soil Science Society of America. Dr. Pierzynski received his B.S. in crop and soil science (1982) and his M.S. in soil environmental chemistry (1985) from Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan. He earned his Ph.D. in soil chemistry (1989) from the Ohio State University, Columbus. Donald L. Sparks, University of Delaware Donald L. Sparks is the S. Hallock du Pont Endowed Chair in Soil and Environmental Chemistry at the University of Delaware and chairman of the Department of Plant and Soil Sciences. He is former president of the International Union of Soil Sciences and former president of the Soil Sci- ence Society of America (SSSA). Dr. Sparks is internationally recognized for his research in the areas of kinetics and surface chemistry of soil chemical processes. He has pioneered the application of chemical kinetics to soils and soil minerals, including development of widely used methods, elucida- tion of rate-limiting steps and mechanisms, and coupling of kinetic studies with molecular scale investigations. He and his research group’s discoveries on the formation and role of surface precipitates in the retention, fate, and transport of metals in natural systems have received worldwide attention and had major influence in the areas of sorption models, metal speciation, and soil remediation and contamination. He is a fellow of the SSSA, Ameri- can Society of Agronomy, and American Association for the Advancement of Science. He has received numerous awards, including the M. L. and Chrystie M. Jackson and Soil Science Research Awards, the Environmental Quality Research Award, McMaster Fellowship from Australia’s Common- wealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, the Sterling Hen- dricks Lectureship from the U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service, and the University of Delaware Francis Alison Faculty and Outstanding Doctoral Advising and Mentoring Awards. James Tiedje, Michigan State University James Tiedje is a university distinguished professor of microbiology and soil science, and is director of the Center for Microbial Ecology at Michi-

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 APPENDIX B gan State University. He has 30 years of experience leading research in microbial ecology and physiology, especially regarding the nitrogen cycle and biodegradation of environmental pollutants. His group has discovered several new microbes that live by halorespiration on chlorinated solvents. Some of the dechlorination processes carried out by these microbes have reduced the environmental burden of PCB, DDT, and chlorinated solvents. He has been editor-in-chief of Applied and Environmental Microbiology and editor of Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. He has received the Environmental Award from the American Society for Microbiology and shared the 1992 Finley Prize given by UNESCO for research contributions in microbiology of international significance. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Academy of Microbiology, and the Soil Science Society of America, and is past president of the International Society for Microbial Ecology. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a former president of the American Soci- ety for Microbiology. He received his B.S. degree from Iowa State University and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Cornell University. Cindy H. Nakatsu, Purdue University Cindy H. Nakatsu is currently a professor and University Faculty Research Scholar at Purdue University. She has been on faculty in the Department of Agronomy at Purdue University since 1995. She was a postdoctoral fellow at Michigan State University’s Center for Microbial Ecology after receiv- ing her Ph.D. in 1993 from Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada, and her M.S. (1983) and B.S. (1978) degrees from the University of Toronto in Toronto, Canada. Her research is focused toward gaining a greater un- derstanding of the diversity of microorganisms in nature and the genetic mechanisms used by bacteria to adapt to their environment. Molecular genetic, traditional microbiology, and ecology experiments are used in her research program. Major projects currently being investigated are (1) to determine the diversity and role of microbial populations in communities of various ecosystems, (2) to determine methods to detect potential sources of pathogenic microorganisms in the environment, and (3) to determine the genetic elements and mechanisms involved in horizontal gene transfer in the environment. Kenneth H. Nealson, University of Southern California After receiving his B.S. degree in biochemistry (1965) and Ph.D. in mi- crobiology (1969), both from the University of Chicago, Dr. Nealson did

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0 APPENDIX B postdoctoral work with Dr. J. W. Hastings at Harvard University. He then moved to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (University of Califor- nia, San Diego), where he remained for 12 years, studying various aspects of marine bioluminescence, particularly the physiology and ecology of lumi- nous bacteria and the organisms with which they are symbiotically associ- ated. During this time, the process of autoinduction (later called quorum sensing) was defined, the active molecules were isolated, and the genes were cloned. In 1982, utilizing a Guggenheim Fellowship for sabbatical leave, Dr. Nealson shifted his area of work to environmental microbiology and biogeochemistry, with a focus on the interactions between microbes and metals. In 1985 he took a position as the Shaw Distinguished Professor of Biology at the University of Wisconsin’s Center for Great Lakes Studies, where he continued his studies of metals and microbes. Dr. Nealson is a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology and has received several awards and commendations, including several from the Society for Indus- trial Microbiology and the American Society for Microbiology. In 1997 Dr. Nealson moved to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology, where he established the Center for Life Detection, and served as director of the astrobiology group, developing new methods for life detection. In 2001 he moved to a new position as the Wrigley Professor of Geobiology at the University of Southern California, setting up the pro- gram in geobiology, and continuing studies of organisms and communities in extreme environments on Earth and, perhaps, elsewhere. Iain M. Young, Scottish Informatics, Mathematics, Biology, and Statistics (SIMBIOS) Centre, University of Abertay Iain M. Young has a background in experimental soil mechanics and moved into soil biophysics 12 years ago. He was head of the Soil-Plant Dynamics Theme (a multidisciplinary team of 35 scientists comprising microbiolo- gists, physicists, and plant scientists) at the Scottish Crop Research Institute. Since January 2000 he has held the chair of environmental biophysics at the University of Abertay, in Dundee, Scotland. In partnership with Professor John Crawford, he established SIMBIOS at Abertay, which now comprises a multidisciplinary staff of 23. After only two years, SIMBIOS was rated as the top environmental research center in Scotland and in the top five in the United Kingdom. The main drive for his work relates to the integration of physics with microbiology of soil systems, in the context of how geometri- cally complex architectures impact, and are impacted by, microbial activ- ity, and how this feeds through to function: water quality, pollutant flow,

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 APPENDIX B and so on. Professor Young has acted in an advisory capacity to the U.K. government on soil quality issues, and the Irish Environmental Agency on future soils research. Brenda J. Buck, University of Nevada Brenda J. Buck is associate professor in the Department of Geoscience at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Her prior positions include visiting scien- tist at the Desert Research Institute, Las Vegas, Nevada; assistant professor in the Department of Geoscience at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas; and assistant professor at the Southeast Missouri State University, Cape Gi- rardeau. Her research focuses on determining and quantifying the processes involved with the genesis of arid soils and paleosols. This research is applied to solve problems involving environmental contamination (heavy metals and radionuclides), paleoclimate, geoarchaeology, landscape evolution, soil geomorphology, and salt tectonics. Dr. Buck has experience in 18 countries on 6 continents. She is a member of the Soil Science Society of America, the Geological Society of America, and Sigma Xi. Dr. Buck received a Ph.D. in agronomy (1996) and a M.S. in geoscience from New Mexico State Univer- sity; and a B.S. in geology from the University of Notre Dame. Larry P. Wilding, Texas A&M University Larry P. Wilding is professor emeritus, Soil and Crop Sciences Department, Texas A&M University. He is a pedologist with more than 40 years teaching and research experience in near-surface geoscience processes, soil diversity, and functions of soils in ecosystem management and biosphere sustain- ability. He has published extensively on soil spatial diversity, pedogenic quantification through micromorphology and reconstruction analyses; silica minerals as markers of parent material uniformity and paleontology; saturation, reduction, and redoximorphic features in hydric soils; pedogenic carbonate genesis and distribution; shrink-swell phenomena in Vertisols; soil mineralogy and weathering relationships; surface mine reclamation; macropore flow and environmental risks in clayey soils; and land degrada- tion, rejuvenation, and evaluation in Africa, China, and Latin America. He has served as president of the Soil Science Society of America, a charter member of the U.S. National Committee for Soil Science, and on several National Research Council committees. He was cochair of the 18th World Congress of Soil Science Organizing Committee. He is a registered profes- sional soil scientist and professional agronomist with the American Registry of Certified Professionals in Agronomy Crops and Soils (ARCPACS), Soil

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 APPENDIX B Science Society of America, and a professional geoscientist (soil scientist), license number 42, state of Texas. César Izaurralde, Joint Global Change Research Institute, University of Maryland César Izaurralde is interim director and laboratory fellow of the Joint Global Change Research Institute at College Park, Maryland. The institute is a collaboration of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Uni- versity of Maryland. He also has adjunct appointments in the departments of Geography and Natural Resource Sciences and Landscape Architecture at the University of Maryland. Dr. Izaurralde earned his agronomist engi- neer degree from the University of Córdoba (Argentina) and his M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from Kansas State University. Dr. Izaurralde’s research focuses on three areas: (1) sustainable agriculture, (2) climate change impacts on agriculture and water resources, and (3) climate change mitigation through soil carbon sequestration and reductions in soil emissions of nitrous oxide. Dr. Izaurralde is an active member of the American Society of Agronomy, the Soil Science Society of America, the American Association for the Ad- vancement of Science, the American Geophysical Union, and the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Henry Lin, Pennsylvania State University Henry Lin is an assistant professor of hydropedology/soil hydrology at the Pennsylvania State University. He holds a B.S. in soil science and agricul- tural chemistry from Fujian Agricultural University, China; a M.S. in soil geography from Nanjing Institute of Soil Science of the Chinese Academy of Sciences; and a Ph.D. in soil science (soil physics and pedology) from Texas A&M University. His research and teaching program focuses on the development of hydropedology as an intertwined branch of soil science and hydrology that embraces interdisciplinary studies of landscape-soil-water relationships across scales. He is the chair of the Hydropedology Work- ing Group of the Soil Science Society of America and of the International Union of Soil Sciences, an associate editor of the Soil Science Society of America Journal, and a cochair of the Committee on Soil Survey and Water Movement of the National Cooperative Soil Survey Conference. He has led a team of interdisciplinary and international scientists in completing a vision paper for the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI), a National Science Foundation- sponsored and community-based professional organization.

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 APPENDIX B Susan Moran, U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) Southwest Watershed Research Center Susan Moran is a hydrologist and research leader for the USDA-ARS South- west Watershed Research Center in Tucson, Arizona. She received her Ph.D. and is an adjunct professor at the University of Arizona Department of Soil, Water, and Environmental Science. Her research addresses estimation of soil water and carbon flux at local and regional scales utilizing a combination of physical models and remote sensing techniques. Dr. Moran has also served on the National Aeronautic and Space Administration’s Landsat Science Team and EO-1 Validation Team to evaluate selected technologies for meet- ing soil science needs in the twenty-first century. Kenneth Kemner, Argonne National Laboratory Kenneth Kemner obtained his Ph.D. in condensed matter physics at the University of Notre Dame in 1993. From 1993 to 1996 he was a National Research Council postdoctoral fellow at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C., where he focused on the investigation of magnetic materials and environmental research. In 1996 he joined the Environmental Research Division at Argonne National Laboratory near Chicago, Illinois, where he began development of the Molecular Environmental Science Research Group, an integrated multidisciplinary research group interested in making use of third-generation synchrotron radiation for environmen- tal research. Since 1997 he has been investigating mineral-microbe-metal interactions and their role in effecting the mobility of contaminant metals and radionuclides, with an emphasis on understanding the role of microbial exudates and microbial surface adhesion on these interactions. In 1999 he received the Presidential Early Career Scientist Award and the Department of Energy Office of Science Early Career Scientist Award. In 2000 he re- ceived the International Union of Crystallography Young Scientist Award. Kenneth J. Klabunde, Kansas State University Kenneth J. Klabunde is a university distinguished professor of chemistry at Kansas State University, and founding director of NanoScale Materi- als, Inc., in Manhattan, Kansas. Dr. Klabunde received his education at Augustana College in Rock Island, Illinois, and earned his Ph.D. at the University of Iowa. He served a year as a postdoc at Pennsylvania State University, and began as assistant professor at the University of North Dakota. In 1979 he moved to Kansas State University, where he served as department head until 1988. In 1995 he founded NanoScale Materials, a

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 APPENDIX B high-technology company that specializes in the manufacture and sale of NanoActive MaterialsTM as sorbents, catalysts, and other uses. Dr. Klabunde has won numerous awards (including the Breakthrough Invention Award from Popular Mechanics Magazine in November 2005), and he was one of the earliest workers in nanotechnology, publishing in 1976 on the unusual chemical properties of different-shaped nanoparticles. He and his students have devised synthetic methods to create numerous metal oxide and metal nanoparticles, and they have shown that metal oxide nanomaterials make up a new family of reactive, porous, inorganic materials. Extensive work on such materials has demonstrated their usefulness for sorption and destruc- tion of toxic chemicals, chemical warfare agents, and biological agents. Kate Scow, University of California (UC), Davis Kate Scow is professor of soil science and microbial ecology in the Depart- ment of Land, Air, and Water Resources at UC, Davis. She is currently director of the Kearney Foundation of Soil Science, a UC-wide endowed program supporting research on 5-year defined missions, currently “Soil Carbon and California Terrestrial Ecosystems.” She obtained her B.S. in biology at Antioch College (1973) and her M.S. (1986) and Ph.D. (1989) degrees in soil science at Cornell University. Her research concerns the microbial ecology of agricultural landscapes and contaminated soil and groundwater. In particular, Dr. Scow’s research group is interested in how microbial communities in general, as well as specific functional groups, re- spond to physical disturbance and organic matter additions in organic and conventional agricultural soils. Also, Dr. Scow’s lab has conducted extensive research on the microbial ecology and bioremediation of the fuel additive methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a ubiquitous contaminant of ground- water. Her research program works across different scales, from genome analysis to field-scale implementation of bioremediation systems. Jayne Belnap, U.S. Geological Survey Canyonlands Research Station, Utah Jayne Belnap has been a scientist with the Department of Interior since 1987, and is currently with the U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resourc- es Division, in Moab, Utah. Her scientific work is focused on how climate change and land use affects the fertility and stability of dryland soils around the world. She has served as an editor for Ecological Applications, the chair for the Soil Ecology section of the Ecological Society of America, and the president of the Soil Ecology Society.

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 APPENDIX B Birl Lowery, University of Wisconsin, Madison Birl Lowery is a professor in the Department of Soil Science at the Uni- versity of Wisconsin, Madison. Dr. Lowery received a Ph.D. in soil physics from Oregon State University; an M.A. in agricultural engineering technol- ogy from Mississippi State University; and a B.S. in agricultural education from Alcorn State University. Dr. Lowery is the recipient of the following awards and honors: the American Society of Agricultural Engineers Blue Ribbon Award for an outstanding entry in the 1987 Educational Aids Competition; fellow of the Soil Science Society of America, 1997; and Vilas Research Associate 1998 to 2000. His research consists of applications of basic soil physical principles to solve soil and water management and con- servation problems. This involves both field and laboratory work, focusing on the dynamics of soil water and temperature regimes, solute flux, soil compaction, and other physical properties. He is particularly interested in developing methods for better understanding spatial movement of water and pollutants in soils; soil compaction, including the effect of tree harvest- ing on compaction; effects of soil erosion on soil quality; and developing new management methods for crop production to reduce surface and groundwater contamination.