Arizona State University, he spent a year as visiting faculty at civil and environmental engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, preceded by eight years in Tokyo at United Nations University where he conducted research related to information technology and the environment. His research interests include industrial ecology, life cycle assessment, information technology (IT), and energy systems, with a focus on the environmental assessment and management of IT hardware. In addition to IT-related issues, Dr. Williams is also working on the effects of development and urbanization on energy demand in industrializing nations, including analysis of relationships between infrastructure provision and transport-related carbon dioxide emissions in Asia and projections of future energy demand of the Chinese iron/steel sector, hybrid life cycle assessment (which combines process and economic input-output techniques), uncertainty analysis in industrial ecology, and sector-level forecasting of technological change/growth. Dr. Williams earned degrees in physics at Macalester College, in St. Paul (B.A.) and the State University of New York, Stony Brook (Ph.D.).

James L. Wolf, Independent Consultant. James Wolf is an independent consultant working with private companies, governments, and foundations on energy and climate change issues. He was formerly vice president of energy and environmental markets for Honeywell, Inc. where he focused on business development opportunities to develop new products and services and market existing services to energy and environmental concerns. Previously, he was executive director at the Alliance to Save Energy, a nonprofit coalition whose board of directors is composed of U.S. senators, chief executive officers of major corporations, and environmental leaders. He also served as acting deputy assistant administrator for policy and planning with the U.S. Department of Commerce’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, where he helped design and supervise policies and programs addressing marine pollution, global climate change, alternative energy resources, and international scientific research protocols. Mr. Wolf has a J.D. degree from Harvard Law School.

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