ship questions, they often touch on management approaches and cost-effectiveness issues as well.

Considering the available metrics for analysis we find that the USGS is managed in a cost-effective manner. Demand for the USGS WRD product is apparent, both in the stakeholder contributions to the Coop program, and popularity of USGS publications and real time water data. The Discipline diligently optimizes its programs and seeks external review both from the NRC and other entities. The USGS pioneered the field of water science in the 20th century; and now some 20 other federal agencies have water science and/or management in their mission statement. The USGS, particularly because of its unbiased nature, successfully facilitates coordination and external collaboration. The SOT questions on “program balance” relate to an older strategic plan employed by the USGS, that cannot be fully tracked using the current budget system. If these are program measures that USGS, DOI, or OMB still deem important, the budget system should be adjusted accordingly to track these measures. A performance review by these metrics judges that overall the USGD WRD programs continue to meet their basic goals and objectives, but many signs point to a decline in their capacity and ability to meet the future needs of the nation.

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