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Local Government Actions to Prevent Childhood Obesity
Conditional Use Permit: A variance granted to a property owner that allows a use otherwise prevented by zoning, through a public hearing process. These permits allow a city or county to consider special uses of land that may be essential or desirable to a particular community but are not allowed as a matter of right within a zoning district. These permits can also control certain uses that could have detrimental effects on a community or neighboring properties. They provide flexibility within a zoning ordinance.
Connectivity: The directness of travel to destinations. Sidewalks and paths that are in good condition and without gaps can promote connectivity.
Density: Population per unit of area measure.
Dietary Guidelines for Americans: The Dietary Guidelines for Americans have been published jointly every 5 years since 1980 by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA). The Guidelines provide authoritative advice for people 2 years and older on how good dietary habits can promote health and reduce risk for major chronic diseases. They serve as the basis for federal nutrition assistance and nutrition education programs.
Discretionary Calories: The number of calories in one’s “energy allowance” after one consumes sufficient amounts of foods and beverages to meet one’s daily calorie and nutrient needs while promoting weight maintenance.
Energy-Dense Foods: Foods that are high in calories.
Exactions: Requirements placed on developers as a condition of development approval, generally falling into two categories: impact fees (see below) or physical exactions such as dedication of land or provision of infrastructure. Exactions must be related to the expected impacts of a project. For example, new homes create the need for more parks and schools, and an exaction might dedicate land in the developer’s plans for more parks and schools.
Food Access: The extent to which a community can supply people with the food needed for health. Communities with poor food access lack the resources necessary to supply people with the food needed for a healthy lifestyle. Availability of high-quality, affordable food and close proximity to food stores increase food access.