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FIGURE 13.2 Title page of The Origin of Species.

FIGURE 13.2 Title page of The Origin of Species.

for empirically untestable hypotheses. He wrote of Herbert Spencer: “His deductive manner of treating any subject is wholly opposed to my frame of mind. His conclusions never convince me. His fundamental generalizations (which have been compared in importance by some persons with Newton’s Laws!), which I daresay may be very valuable under a philosophical point of view, are of such a nature that they do not seem to me to be of any strictly scientific use. They partake more of the nature of definitions than of laws of nature. They do not aid me in predicting what will happen in any particular case” (Barlow, 1958, p. 109).

There is another reason, a tactical one, Darwin claimed to proceed according to inductive canons: he did not want to be accused of subjective

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