The second panel discussed lessons learned from past and present competitive activities. Speakers were drawn from commercial launch services and commercial remote sensing sectors.

The third panel addressed space and national security. Major issues that surfaced related to ITAR, attitudes of the U.S. Congress with regard to international cooperation, and the implications of seeking to engage China in future cooperative space activities.

The fourth panel focused on the potential offered by space cooperation as a tool for the engagement of new and emerging space nations. Particular emphasis was placed on continuing activities within the Global Exploration Strategy/International Space Exploration Coordination Group, U.S.-Japanese space cooperation, and China’s emergence as a major space power.

Following panel presentations, workshop participants collectively discussed the issues raised.


Following the plenary discussions, workshop participants were divided into four parallel discussion groups that were each given one of the following topics to address:

  • International space cooperation as a tool for engagement with emerging space power,

  • The role of international cooperation in the future of space exploration,

  • The role of Earth observations in supporting international efforts in climate and sustainability, and

  • New approaches to global space cooperation in a time of limited resources.

The views of discussion group participants were reported back to the final plenary session and are summarized below. They do not represent consensus findings or conclusions on the part of the National Research Council, the Space Studies Board, the workshop as a whole, or any other group.

Engaging New and Emerging Space Powers in International Cooperation

The discussion group on engaging new and emerging space powers in international cooperation observed that new and emerging space powers may desire to cooperate with the United States on space projects for a variety of reasons including:

  • Enhancement of their prestige;

  • Acceleration of their economic and technical development; and

  • Greater access to knowledge, experience, and technology.

From a U.S. perspective, the group identified benefits from collaboration that included:

  • Support for U.S. foreign-policy goals;

  • Increased access to key decision makers;

  • Insight into capabilities, approaches, and plans;

  • Identification of new ideas and new technologies;

  • Reduction in U.S. costs; and

  • Expansion of instrument flight opportunities and data analysis capabilities.

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