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Biographies of the Planning Committee, Keynote Speakers, Moderators, and Panelists

PLANNING COMMITTEE

CHARLES F. KENNEL, Chair, is a distinguished professor of atmospheric science and director emeritus in the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). Dr. Kennel was the founding director of the UCSD Environment and Sustainability Initiative, an all-campus effort embracing teaching, research, campus operations, and public outreach, and is now chairman of its international advisory board. His research covers plasma physics, space plasma physics, solar-terrestrial physics, plasma astrophysics, and environmental science and policy. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, and the International Academy of Astronautics. He was a member of the NASA Advisory Council from 1998 to 2006, its chair from 2001-2005, and is presently chair of the California Council on Science and Technology. He has had visiting appointments to the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (Trieste), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (Boulder), the Ecole Polytechnique (Paris), California Institute of Technology (Pasadena), Space Research Institute (Moscow), and the University of Cambridge (U.K.). He is a recipient of the James Clerk Maxwell Prize (American Physical Society), the Hannes Alfven Prize (European Geophysical Society), the Aurelio Peccei Prize (Academia Lincei), and the NASA Distinguished Service and Distinguished Public Service Medals. He was the 2007 C.P. Snow Lecturer at Christ’s College, Cambridge (U.K.). Dr. Kennel has served on numerous National Research Council (NRC) committees and boards including the Committee on NASA’s Beyond Einstein Program: An Architecture for Implementation (co-chair), the Committee on Global Change Research (chair), the Committee on Fusion Science Assessment (chair), the Board on Physics and Astronomy (chair), the Panel to Review the National Space Science Data Center/World Data Center-A for Rockets and Satellites, the Committee on Cooperation with the USSR in Solar Activity, Solar Wind, Terrestrial Effects, and Solar Acceleration (co-chair), the Plasma Science Committee (chair), and the Air Force Physics Research Committee. He is currently chair of the Space Studies Board (SSB).


A. THOMAS YOUNG is a retired executive vice president of Lockheed Martin. Mr. Young previously was president and COO of Martin Marietta Corporation. Prior to joining industry, Mr. Young worked for 21 years at NASA. At NASA, he directed the Goddard Space Flight Center, was deputy director of the Ames Research Center, and directed the Planetary Program in the Office of Space Science at NASA Headquarters. Mr. Young received high acclaim for his technical leadership in organizing and directing national space and defense programs, especially the Viking program. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and the NASA Advisory Council. Mr. Young is a former member of the NRC Office of Science and Engineering Personnel Advisory Committee, the Committee on Supply Chain Integration: New Roles and Challenges for Small and Medium-Sized Companies, the Committee for Technological Literacy (chair), and the Committee on a New Science Strategy for Solar System Exploration. Mr. Young is currently vice chair of the SSB.


DANIEL N. BAKER is a professor of astrophysical and planetary sciences and director of the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado at Boulder. He is also the director of the



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C Biographies of the Planning Committee, Keynote Speakers, Moderators, and Panelists PLANNING COMMITTEE CHARLES F. KENNEL, Chair, is a distinguished professor of atmospheric science and director emeritus in the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). Dr. Kennel was the founding director of the UCSD Environment and Sustainability Initiative, an all-campus effort embracing teaching, research, campus operations, and public outreach, and is now chairman of its international advisory board. His research covers plasma physics, space plasma physics, solar-terrestrial physics, plasma astrophysics, and environmental science and policy. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, and the International Academy of Astronautics. He was a member of the NASA Advisory Council from 1998 to 2006, its chair from 2001-2005, and is presently chair of the California Council on Science and Technology. He has had visiting appointments to the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (Trieste), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (Boulder), the Ecole Polytechnique (Paris), California Institute of Technology (Pasadena), Space Research Institute (Moscow), and the University of Cambridge (U.K.). He is a recipient of the James Clerk Maxwell Prize (American Physical Society), the Hannes Alfven Prize (European Geophysical Society), the Aurelio Peccei Prize (Academia Lincei), and the NASA Distinguished Service and Distinguished Public Service Medals. He was the 2007 C.P. Snow Lecturer at Christ’s College, Cambridge (U.K.). Dr. Kennel has served on numerous National Research Council (NRC) committees and boards including the Committee on NASA’s Beyond Einstein Program: An Architecture for Implementation (co-chair), the Committee on Global Change Research (chair), the Committee on Fusion Science Assessment (chair), the Board on Physics and Astronomy (chair), the Panel to Review the National Space Science Data Center/World Data Center-A for Rockets and Satellites, the Committee on Cooperation with the USSR in Solar Activity, Solar Wind, Terrestrial Effects, and Solar Acceleration (co-chair), the Plasma Science Committee (chair), and the Air Force Physics Research Committee. He is currently chair of the Space Studies Board (SSB). A. THOMAS YOUNG is a retired executive vice president of Lockheed Martin. Mr. Young previously was president and COO of Martin Marietta Corporation. Prior to joining industry, Mr. Young worked for 21 years at NASA. At NASA, he directed the Goddard Space Flight Center, was deputy director of the Ames Research Center, and directed the Planetary Program in the Office of Space Science at NASA Headquarters. Mr. Young received high acclaim for his technical leadership in organizing and directing national space and defense programs, especially the Viking program. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and the NASA Advisory Council. Mr. Young is a former member of the NRC Office of Science and Engineering Personnel Advisory Committee, the Committee on Supply Chain Integration: New Roles and Challenges for Small and Medium-Sized Companies, the Committee for Technological Literacy (chair), and the Committee on a New Science Strategy for Solar System Exploration. Mr. Young is currently vice chair of the SSB. DANIEL N. BAKER is a professor of astrophysical and planetary sciences and director of the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado at Boulder. He is also the director of the 29

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Center for Limb Atmospheric Sounding and is a member of the Center for Integrated Plasma Studies. His primary research interest covers the study of plasma physical and energetic particle phenomena in the planetary magnetospheres and Earth’s magnetosphere. He also conducts research in space-instrument design, space-physics data analysis, and magnetospheric modeling. Dr. Baker is a member of SSB. DAVID GOLDSTON is a visiting lecturer in the Center for the Environment at Harvard University. Prior to joining the Center, he was a visiting lecturer in the Science, Technology and Environmental Policy Program at Princeton University’s Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. Mr. Goldston was chief of staff of the U.S. House Committee on Science (2001-2006) where he oversaw a committee that has jurisdiction over most of the federal civilian research and development budget, including programs run by NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Department of Energy, the Department of Commerce, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Prior to becoming staff director, he was legislative director for Congressman Sherwood Boehlert (R-NY) and served as top environmental aide and oversaw the legislative and press operations of the office. From 1985 to 1994, he served on the Science Committee as the special assistant on the Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology where he oversaw the programs of NSF and National Institute of Standards and Technology. In 1994 and 1995, he was project director at the Council on Competitiveness, a private sector group with members from industry, labor and academia. He is a member of the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB). JOAN JOHNSON-FREESE is chair of the Department of National Security Decision Making at the Naval War College (NWC). Prior to that, she held positions as chair of the Transnational Studies Department at the Asia Pacific Center for Security Studies, as a faculty member at the Air War College, and as director of the Center for Space Policy and Law at the University of Central Florida. Dr. Johnson- Freese has focused her research and writing on security studies generally, and space programs and policies specifically, including issues relating to technology transfer and export, missile defense, transparency, space and regional development, transformation, and globalization. She has testified before Congress concerning U.S.-Sino security issues concerning space. Dr. Johnson-Freese is a member of the SSB and the Committee on the Rationale and Goals of the U.S. Civil Space Program. RICHARD H. KOHRS has more than 50 years of experience in systems engineering and integration for NASA’s Apollo mission, space shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), and commercial programs. He retired from NASA as director of Space Station Freedom where he had overall responsibility for development and operation of the program. He also served as deputy director for the space shuttle program and before that was responsible for vehicle integration of orbiter, main engines, external tank, solid rocket boosters, and the ground system. From 1997 to 2005, he served as chief engineer of Kistler Aerospace with overall responsibility for technical integration of the seven major subcontractors and systems engineering and integration of the Kistler reusable launch vehicle. From 2006 to 2007, he served as program manager of SAGES (Shuttle/Apollo Generation Expert Services) for SAIC, providing the NASA Constellation Program access to retired senior personnel from Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and shuttle programs. Mr. Kohrs is a member of the ASEB. MOLLY K. MACAULEY is a senior fellow with Resources for the Future (RFF) where she is director of academic programs. Dr. Macauley’s research at RFF has covered studies on economics and policy issues of outer space, the valuation of non-priced space resources, the design of incentive arrangements to improve space resource use, and the appropriate relationship between public and private endeavors in space research, development, and commercial enterprise. Dr. Macauley has served as a visiting professor in the Department of Economics at Johns Hopkins University and in the Woodrow Wilson School of Public Affairs at Princeton University. She was a member of the NRC Science Panel of the Review of NASA Strategic Roadmaps and the Panel on Earth Science Applications and Societal Needs of the 30

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decadal survey Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future. She is currently a member of the SSB. BERRIEN MOORE III is the executive director of Climate Central. He is the former director of the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space at the University of New Hampshire. Dr. Moore’s research focuses on the carbon cycle, global biogeochemical cycles, global change, and policy issues in the area of the global environment. He led the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) Task Force on Global Analysis, Interpretation, and Modeling prior to serving as chair of the Scientific Committee of the IGBP. Dr. Moore is a member of the SSB and was co-chair of the decadal survey committee for Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future. JOAN VERNIKOS was the director of Life and Biomedical Sciences and Applications at NASA Headquarters from 1993 until September 2000. Prior to this, Dr. Vernikos was on staff at NASA’s Ames Research Center and before that, at Ohio State University Medical School where she was assistant professor of pharmacology. While at NASA, she led the research that developed the framework for determining how spaceflight and Earth’s gravity affect the human body. After leaving NASA in 2000, Dr. Vernikos began a consulting company, Thirdage LLC. She is a member of the SSB. WARREN M. WASHINGTON is a senior scientist and head of the Climate Change Research Section in the Climate and Global Dynamics Division at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Dr. Washington’s areas of expertise are atmospheric science and climate research, and he specializes in computer modeling of the Earth’s climate. He serves as a consultant and advisor to a number of government officials and committees on climate-system modeling. From 1978 to 1984, he served on the President’s National Advisory Committee on Oceans and Atmosphere. In 1998, he was appointed to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA’s) Science Advisory Board. In 2002, he was appointed to the Science Advisory Panel of the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy and the National Academies Coordinating Committee on Global Change. He is a member of the NAE. Dr. Washington’s NRC service is extensive and includes membership on the Policy and Global Affairs Committee and the SSB. He is past chair of the National Science Board. Rapporteur JAMES V. ZIMMERMAN is the immediate past president of the International Astronautical Federation (IAF). He was elected by the IAF’s member organizations to lead the federation in 2004 and has completed his second term as president, a volunteer position. Mr. Zimmerman also serves as president of International Space Services, Inc., a space policy and international business development consulting firm. Before retiring from the U.S. government in 1997, Mr. Zimmerman held several senior executive positions at NASA and other federal agencies. As chief of NASA’s International Planning and Programs Office, he was responsible for negotiating NASA’s joint projects with space agencies in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe. In 1980 Mr. Zimmerman founded and served as the first director of the International Affairs Office of the National Environmental Satellite Service at NOAA, when NOAA assumed responsibility for the Landsat Earth observations satellite program. From 1982 to 1985 he served as assistant director for export, import and international safeguards of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission where he was responsible for approving American exports of fuel and reactor components to other countries for nuclear power and research purposes. In 1985 Mr. Zimmerman returned to NASA to become the agency’s European representative. During this 12-year assignment he was based in Paris, France, and traveled extensively throughout Europe to represent the U.S. government’s civil space interests. He is a fellow of the American Astronautical Society (AAS) and an associate fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) where he also served as vice president- international. He is a member of the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) and a co-author of an 31

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Academy cosmic study on “Next Steps in Exploring Deep Space.” Mr. Zimmerman was twice awarded NASA’s Exceptional Service Medal. In addition he received the European Space Agency’s (ESA’s) International Space Station Award and the German Space Agency’s International Cooperation Award. He also received the AAS’s Award for the Advancement of International Cooperation. Mr. Zimmerman received a bachelor of arts degree from Beloit College and a master of arts degree from Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies. He also studied at the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, and at universities in Finland, Austria, and Italy. Staff IAN PRYKE, study director, retired from the European Space Agency in 2003. He is currently a senior program officer (part time) with the SSB, a senior fellow and assistant professor at the Center for Aerospace Policy Research in the School of Public Policy of George Mason University, and also operates as an independent consultant. He joined the European Space Research Organisation [later ESA] in 1969, working in the areas of data processing and satellite communications. In 1976 he transferred to ESA’s Earth Observation Programme Office where he was involved in the formulation of the Remote Sensing Programme. In 1979 he moved to the ESA Washington Office, where he was engaged in liaison work with both government and industry in the United States and Canada, taking over as head of the office in 1983. He holds a B.Sc. in physics from the University of London and an M.Sc. in space electronics and communications from the University of Kent. JOSEPH K. ALEXANDER served previously as director of the SSB, deputy assistant administrator for science in the Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Research and Development, associate director of space sciences at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and assistant associate administrator of the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications. He has also been deputy NASA chief scientist and senior policy analyst at the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. Mr. Alexander’s own research work has been in radio astronomy and space physics. He received a B.S. and an M.A. in physics from the College of William and Mary. CARMELA J. CHAMBERLAIN has worked for the National Academies since 1974. She started as a senior project assistant in the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (which is now the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research in the Division on Earth and Life Studies), where she worked for 2 years. She then transferred to the Space Science Board, which is now the Space Studies Board. She is now a program associate with the SSB. CATHERINE A. GRUBER is an editor with the SSB. She joined SSB as a senior program assistant in 1995. Ms. Gruber came to the National Research Council in 1988 as a senior secretary for the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board and has also worked as an outreach assistant for the National Academy of Sciences-Smithsonian Institution’s National Science Resources Center. She was a research assistant (chemist) in the National Institute of Mental Health’s Laboratory of Cell Biology for 2 years. She has a B.A. in natural science from St. Mary’s College of Maryland. KEYNOTE SPEAKERS, MODERATORS, AND PANELISTS MARK J. ALBRECHT was president of International Launch Services (ILS), the Russian/American joint venture company owned by Lockheed Martin Corporation in collaboration with Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center, Moscow, from 1999 until 2006. ILS provides the Lockheed Martin-built Atlas and the Russian-built Proton and Angara launch vehicles and associated launch integration services to government and commercial satellite customers worldwide. During his tenure at ILS, Dr. Albrecht has been nominated multiple times for Satellite Executive of the Year by Via Satellite 32

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magazine. In 2004, he was named by Space News as one of the “100 People Who Made a Difference” in space, under the “corporate chieftains” category. Under his leadership, ILS received the Frost & Sullivan Market Engineering Award for Strategic Alliance and Leadership in 2002, as well as the PBI Media PR and Marketing award for the Best Launch Innovation of the Year in 2003. Dr. Albrecht’s career at Lockheed Martin included serving as vice president of business development for Lockheed Martin Space Systems. In that position, he was responsible for domestic and international marketing and business development for the space systems operating companies and management of its strategic planning and customer relations. Before joining Lockheed Martin, Dr. Albrecht was senior vice president of Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). In this capacity, he coordinated all space business activities, including business development, strategic planning, mergers and acquisitions. He joined SAIC in 1992 as its first director of Washington, D.C., operations. He was appointed in 1989 by President George Bush as the executive secretary of the National Space Council, serving in that capacity until 1992. Previously, Dr. Albrecht served as the legislative assistant for national security affairs to Senator Pete Wilson of California, held positions as a senior research analyst for the intelligence community staff in Washington, D.C., and the Rand Corporation, and as a member of SAIC research staff. Dr. Albrecht graduated Phi Beta Kappa from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), and holds a master’s degree from UCLA and a doctorate in public policy analysis from the Rand Graduate School. ANDREW ALDRIN is currently director of Business Development and Advanced Programs for United Launch Alliance. Before that, he served in various positions in Business Development and Strategy at the Boeing Company including: vice president and director of Boeing Launch Services, and director of Business Development for Boeing NASA Systems. Dr. Aldrin’s previous career was with leading U.S. policy research institutes, including the Rand Corporation and the Institute for Defense Analyses. He is currently a member of the adjunct faculty at International Space University and has also served as an adjunct professor at California State University at Long Beach as well as the University of Houston-Clear Lake. He holds a doctorate in political science from UCLA, a masters of business administration from Trium, a master’s degree in science, technology, and public policy from George Washington University, and a bachelor’s degree in political science and international relations from University of California at Santa Barbara. Dr. Aldrin is a corresponding member of the International Academy of Sciences and has written widely on a range of issues related to international security and space exploration. MARK E. BRENDER joined GeoEye in 2006 after 8 years at Space Imaging as the vice president of communications and Washington operations. Mr. Brender has more than 25 years of experience in public affairs, broadcast journalism, and government relations and is responsible for all communications and marketing, including brand awareness, reputation, and issues management. Prior to joining Space Imaging, Mr. Brender was a broadcast journalist for ABC News where he spent 16 years at the network as an assignment editor and editorial producer. Before his ABC career he served in the U.S. Navy as a public affairs officer and is a retired naval reserve commander. Mr. Brender has an undergraduate degree from Miami University in Ohio and a master’s degree in public relations from the School of Business at American University. In 1985 Mr. Brender established the Radio and Television News Directors Association Remote Sensing Task Force to clear the way for high-resolution imagery to move into the commercial sector. RAVI B. DEO is the director of technology, space systems market segment at Northrop Grumman Corporation’s Integrated Systems Sector. He has worked as a program and functional manager for government and company sponsored projects on Cryotanks, Integrated System Health Management, Aerospace Structures, Materials, Subsystems, Avionics, Thermal Protection Systems, and software development. He has extensive experience in roadmapping technologies, program planning, technical program execution, scheduling, budgeting, proposal preparation, and business management of technology development contracts. Among his significant accomplishments are the NASA-funded Space Launch Initiative, Next Generation Launch Technology, Orbital Space Plane, and High Speed Research programs 33

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where he was responsible for the development of multidisciplinary technologies. Dr. Deo is the author of more than 50 technical publications and is the editor of one book. Dr. Deo is a member of the ASEB and served on the NRC Panel C⎯Structures and Materials of the Steering Committee on Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics and the Panel J⎯High-Energy Power and Propulsion and In-space Transportation of the Committee for the Review of NASA’s Capability Roadmaps. He has also served on the Scientific Advisory Board to the Air Force Research Laboratories. PEGGY FINARELLI is a senior fellow in the Center for Aerospace Policy Research at George Mason University. From 2000-2006, she was the International Space University’s vice president for North American Operations. Before that, her career with NASA and other U.S. government agencies focused on strategy development and negotiations in the fields of domestic space policy and international relations in science and technology. At NASA (1981-2000), she rose to the position of associate administrator for policy coordination and international relations. She played a major role at NASA in developing the initial concepts for the international partnerships in the Space Station Freedom (now the ISS). She led the U.S. team conducting the first round of international negotiations in the mid-1980s that resulted in the agreements governing NASA’s cooperation with Europe, Japan, and Canada. These agreements established the legal, policy, and programmatic framework for the multi-billion dollar ISS. As an undergraduate at the University of Pennsylvania, she was elected to Phi Beta Kappa and graduated magna cum laude with a B.S. with distinction in chemistry. She also has an M.S. degree in physical chemistry from Drexel University. She was elected to the IAA in 2003, was elected as a fellow of the AAS in 2004, and was elected as an associate fellow of the AIAA in 2005. Ms. Finarelli received NASA’s Exceptional Service Medal in 1985, the Presidential Meritorious Rank Award in 1988, NASA’s Group Achievement Award in 1989 and 1994, the Women in Aerospace Outstanding Achievement Award in 1989, NASA’s Exceptional Achievement Medal in 1991, and the AIAA International Cooperation Award in 2004. LENNARD A. FISK is the Thomas M. Donahue Collegiate Professor of Space Science in the Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences at the University of Michigan, where he also served as chair from 1993 to 2003. Prior to joining the university, Dr. Fisk was the associate administrator for space science and applications at NASA. In this position he was responsible for the planning and direction of all NASA programs concerned with space science and applications and for the institutional management of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Prior to becoming associate administrator in 1987, Dr. Fisk served as Vice president for research and financial affairs at the University of New Hampshire. In this position, he was responsible for the administration of the university research activities and was the chief financial officer of the university. Dr. Fisk joined the faculty of the Department of Physics at the University of New Hampshire in 1977, and founded the Solar-Terrestrial Theory Group in 1980. He was an astrophysicist at the GSFC from 1971 to 1977 and a NAS postdoctoral research fellow at GSFC from 1969 to 1971. He is a member of the NAS and served as chair of its Space Studies Board from 2003 to 2008. GIB KIRKHAM serves as the director of the Exploration Systems and Aeronautics Research Division in NASA’s Office of External Relations. Mr. Kirkham joined NASA Headquarters in 1992, as a presidential management intern. From 1992 to 1995, he served as the lead NASA negotiator on a number of key programmatic, contractual, and policy activities between NASA and its Japanese and Russian partners. Later, as the executive secretary to the Stafford Task Force of the NASA Advisory Council from 1995 to 1997, Mr. Kirkham organized and led initiatives on a broad range of executive-level and interagency international, civil, and national security issues involving NASA’s collaboration in human spaceflight with Russia. From 1997 to 2002, Mr. Kirkham served as the NASA attaché to the U.S. Embassy in Tokyo, Japan. Mr. Kirkham received a bachelor of arts in history from the College of Wooster and a master’s degree in Japanese studies and international economics from the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies. In 2004, Mr. Kirkham received a master’s of business administration 34

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from the International Executive MBA Program of Georgetown University’s McDonough School of Business. GREGORY KULACKI is currently a senior analyst and the manager of the China Project for the Global Security Program of the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), a nonprofit partnership of scientists and citizens combining rigorous scientific analysis, innovative policy development and effective citizen advocacy. Since coming to UCS he has been conducting research on the structure and function of the Chinese arms control community, Chinese arms control policy, and China’s space program, particularly technologies and strategies related to space security. He has also been administering a professional exchange program that brings Chinese scientific and technical experts together with their U.S. counterparts to conduct research on arms control policy. Formerly the director of academic programs in China for the Council on International Exchange, he has spent nearly 20 years working to promote educational, professional, and governmental exchanges between the United States and the People’s Republic of China. ROGER D. LAUNIUS is senior curator in the Division of Space History at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C., where he was division chair from 2003 to 2007. Between 1990 and 2002 he served as chief historian of the NASA. He has written or edited more than 20 books on aerospace history, including Robots in Space: Technology, Evolution, and Interplanetary Travel (2008); Societal Impact of Spaceflight (2007); Critical Issues in the History of Spaceflight (2006); Space Stations: Base Camps to the Stars (2003), which received the AIAA’s history manuscript prize; Reconsidering a Century of Flight (2003); To Reach the High Frontier: A History of U.S. Launch Vehicles (2002); Imagining Space: Achievements, Possibilities, Projections, 1950-2050 (2001); Reconsidering Sputnik: Forty Years Since the Soviet Satellite (2000); Innovation and the Development of Flight (1999); Frontiers of Space Exploration (1998, rev. ed. 2004); Spaceflight and the Myth of Presidential Leadership (1997); and NASA: A History of the U.S. Civil Space Program (1994, rev. ed. 2001). He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the IAA, and the AAS. He also served as a consultant to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board in 2003 and presented the prestigious Harmon Memorial Lecture on the history of national security space policy at the U.S. Air Force Academy in 2006. He is frequently consulted by the electronic and print media for his views on space issues, and has been a guest commentator on National Public Radio and major television network news programs. A graduate of Graceland College, he received his Ph.D. from Louisiana State University. CONRAD LAUTENBACHER is the former undersecretary of commerce for oceans and atmosphere and NOAA administrator. A graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy, Vice Admiral Lautenbacher has served in a broad range of operational, command and staff billets. Staff duties included higher education as well as significant assignments in senior management. Vice Admiral Lautenbacher attended Harvard University receiving M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in applied mathematics. He was selected as a federal executive fellow and served at the Brookings Institution. He served as a guest lecturer on numerous occasions at the Naval War College, the Army War College, the Air War College, the Fletcher School of Diplomacy, and the National Defense University. As a flag officer he served as deputy chief of staff for management/ inspector general on the staff of the Commander in Chief U.S. Pacific Fleet; and as director of force structure, resources, and assessments (J-8) on the Joint Staff, where he contributed to the development of the Base Force and was a prime architect of the Bottom Up Review military force structure. He also served as director, Office of Program Appraisal, on the staff of the Secretary of the Navy, and his last assignment on active duty was as deputy chief of naval operations (resources, warfare requirements and assessments) where he was personally responsible for developing the Navy Future (5) Years Program and a $80 billion annual budget. These positions resulted in the development of significant expertise in federal government processes within both the executive and legislative branches. After transitioning to the civilian sector, he formed his own management consultant business, and worked principally for Technology, Strategies & Alliances Inc. He was president and CEO of the Consortium for Oceanographic 35

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Research and Education, a not-for-profit organization with a membership of 65 institutions of higher learning and a mission to increase basic knowledge and public support across the spectrum of ocean sciences. He joined NOAA in 2001. LINDA V. MOODIE, in her capacity as senior advisor to NOAA, advises the NOAA assistant administrator for satellite and information services, Mary Kicza, especially in her role as the current chair of the Strategic Implementation Team of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). Ms. Moodie played a major role in the conceptualization and execution of the first Earth Observation Summit in 2003, which launched the the intergovernmental Group on Earth Observations (GEO). Ms. Moodie advised the NOAA administrator in his capacity as GEO co-chair, advises the NOAA co-chair of the U.S. Integrated Earth Observation System, which is the U.S. contribution to the international system, and participated on the small team that drafted the international GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan. Ms. Moodie also represents the United States on its delegation to the Conference of the Parties of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and is the lead U.S. negotiator for research and systematic observation issues. A public servant with NOAA for 20 years, Ms. Moodie is responsible for the international and interagency coordination of collaborative activities undertaken by NOAA in the application of satellite data. Before joining NOAA, she served as deputy director, Bretton Woods Committee, and as public policy analyst and project coordinator, National Council for International Health. Ms. Moodie received her B.A. in economics from the University of Michigan and her M.A. in international affairs from the Johns Hopkins University School for Advanced International Studies. CLAYTON MOWRY has served as president of Arianespace, Inc., the U.S. subsidiary of Europe’s Arianespace launch consortium, since 2001, where he is responsible for sales, marketing, operations, and government relations. Prior to joining Arianespace, Mr. Mowry served for 6 years as executive director of the Satellite Industry Association. He began his career in the space industry as a satellite and launch industry analyst with the International Trade Administration at the U.S. Department of Commerce. VINCENT SABATHIER is senior fellow and director for space initiatives at Center for Strategic and International Studies. He is also senior adviser to the SAFRAN group and consults internationally on aerospace and telecommunications. He is president of Als@tis, a telecommunications company he founded in Toulouse, France, in 2004. Until 2004, he served as the representative of the French Space Agency (CNES) in North America and as the attaché for space and aeronautics at the embassy of France in Washington, D.C. There, he focused on strengthening bilateral dialogue and cooperation with all branches of the U.S. government involved in aerospace. Mr. Sabathier has served in many roles in the aerospace industry, with the French Ministry of Defense, CNES, and Arianespace, where he was actively involved in the development of Ariane 5. Arianespace selected him to negotiate production contracts for Ariane launchers and later appointed him program manager for follow-on projects they financed. Mr. Sabathier has written more than 50 articles and reports and lectured at a variety of conferences and symposiums. He has also taught space transportation systems at the University Paul Sabatier in Toulouse. He received his degree from École Centrale de Nantes in France and performed research work at the Colorado School of Mines with a grant from Martin Marietta Astronautics. He later specialized in space systems at the École Nationale Supérieure de l’Aéronautique et de l’Espace, Toulouse, and holds an international management degree from ESSEC, Paris. He participated in the Executive Education Program in Strategic Issues in Mergers and Acquisitions at INSEAD, Fontainebleau, France. ROALD SAGDEEV is a Distinguished University Professor at the University of Maryland. From 1970 to 1980 he served as director of Space Research Institute, Moscow, where he led a number of international space projects, including VEGA (lander and atmospheric balloons to Venus), the joint U.S.- Soviet Apollo-Soyuz mission, and the international mission to Halley's Comet, for which he received the Order of Lenin. He has memberships in Academies in Russia, Vatican, and Tatarstan. He is a foreign associate of the NAS. He served as vice president of COSPAR, and more recently as a member of the 36

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SSB. In 2008, he was elected fellow of the American Philosophical Society (APS). In addition to his scientific career, Dr. Sagdeev played a major political role during the first five years of perestroika, serving as an advisor to Mikhail Gorbachev at the Geneva, Washington, and Moscow summits. Mr. Sagdeev has made fundamental contributions to a broad range of fields ranging from plasma physics to planetary science, astrophysics, and arms control. In March of 2001, he was appointed to Intelilabs advisory board. He is co-winner of the 1995 APS Leo Szilard Award for his role in promoting the use of physics for the benefit of society in such areas as the environment, arms control, and science policy. ERIC STERNER is a defense and aerospace consultant specializing in areas where high technology and national security intersect. His served as the senior professional staff member responsible for defense policy on the House Armed Services Committee and as the special assistant to the assistant secretary of defense for international security policy, the Honorable J.D. Crouch II. Prior to that, he was a national security analyst for NSR Inc. and for the Strategic and Intelligence Programs Division at JAYCOR, focusing on the strategic impact of emerging technologies. In the areas of civil and commercial space activity, he simultaneously held two positions as NASA’s associate deputy administrator for policy and planning and chief of strategic communications. A member of the non-career Executive Service, Mr. Sterner was responsible for institutional management and coordinating the work of NASA’s outreach organizations. He served on the staff of the House Science Committee under three different chairs and was the staff director for its Space and Aeronautics Subcommittee at the time of his departure. In the private sector, he was vice president for federal services at TerreStar Networks, Inc., an emerging wireless communications company integrating satellite and terrestrial components. A published author, Mr. Sterner earned his B.A. from American University and two M.A. degrees from George Washington University. JEAN-PIERRE SWINGS, chair of the European Space Sciences Committee of the European Science Foundation, is an astrophysicist (solar physics, gravitational lenses, large telescopes, both ground and space) with approximately 180 papers published. He has been involved in many international organizations, especially the International Astronomical Society (general secretary 1985-1988), the European Southern Observatory (council member for 17 years, VLT planning, etc.), the European Space Agency (~30 committees ), and is a co-founder of the European Astronomical Society. He holds Ph.D. and D.Sc. degrees from the University of Liège, Belgium, where he is an Honorary Professor. He has performed post-doctoral work at JILA, the Joint Research Institute of NIST and the University of Colorado, Boulder, and has served as a Carnegie fellow. YOSHINORI YOSHIMURA is the director of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Washington Office. Formerly, he was the director of the System Engineering Office at JAXA Headquarters where he was responsible for the coordination of overall JAXA engineering activities to support JAXA’s chief engineer and the education planning of JAXA systems engineers. In 1982, he began his JAXA career at the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) performing satellite structural design. He was also involved in the thermal vacuum tests of satellites at the Tsukuba Space Center. In 1985, he joined the Japanese Experiment Module program as a systems engineer and was stationed at NASA Johnson Space Center as the Japanese representative for the ISS program in 1987. In 1991, he went to the Space Policy Institute of George Washington University to study as a visiting scholar and worked for the House Science Committee Subcommittee on Space as an intern. In 1994, he joined the ISS IGA/Memorandum of understanding negotiations as a member of the Japanese delegation, contributing to the conclusion of the new IGA/MOU in 1998. In 1999, he became the director of international affairs, Office of Research and Development Bureau, Science and Technology Agency of Japan and was responsible for supervising international space cooperation activities both at NASDA and National Aeronautics Laboratory. He received both bachelor and master of engineering degrees from the University of Tokyo. 37