Appendix I
Subcommittee Template: Developing a National Standard Set of Spoken Language Categories and Coding

The Subcommittee on Standardized Collection of Race/Ethnicity Data for Healthcare Quality Improvement recommends the collection of the variable spoken “language need” for each individual. Language need is to be assessed through two questions: the first is an individual’s personal assessment of his/her ability to speak English and then their preferred spoken language for a health-related encounter (Recommendation 4-1). Having this information for each individual allows its use to ensure the quality of services in subsequent encounters, in analysis of health care disparities, and in system-level planning (e.g., determining the need for interpreters and matching patients to language-concordant providers). The subcommittee defines limited English proficiency for health care purposes as someone who speaks English less than very well.

When data are shared from one entity to another (e.g., providers to health plan or health plans to states), standardization helps ensure that data can be combined for like categories. Unlike race and Hispanic ethnicity, there is no Office of Management and Budget (OMB) standard for language categories, thus the subcommittee recommends that the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) develop national standard lists of spoken and written languages and codes (Recommendation 6-1a) and that entities choose their categories from the national standard list (Recommendation 4-3) according to the needs of the population they serve or study (Recommendation 4-2). When a health care entity designs its collection instruments, whether paper or electronic, it may, because of space considerations, have to use a limited number of pre-selected response categories. Therefore, such a response list should always include an “Other, please specify: __” option to ensure collection of each person’s language need (Recommendation 4-2). Some electronic data collection systems are more sophisticated, and by using keystroke recognition can accommodate hundreds of languages.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE TEMPLATE

The subcommittee did not identify a single existing category list that it believed was ready to serve as a national standard set. To develop a template of spoken languages spoken in the United States, the subcommittee compiled the attached list to serve as a draft template of language names and coding possibilities. (An online searchable and sortable Excel version of the list is available at: www.iom.edu/datastandardization.) Census Bureau data on languages spoken at home was a logical place to start to compile lists of languages; the Census has compiled



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Appendix I Subcommittee Template: Developing a National Standard Set of Spoken Language Categories and Coding The Subcommittee on Standardized Collection of Race/Ethnicity Data for Healthcare Quality Improvement recommends the collection of the variable spoken “language need” for each individual. Language need is to be assessed through two questions: the first is an individual’s personal assessment of his/her ability to speak English and then their preferred spoken language for a health-related encounter (Recommendation 4-1). Having this infor - mation for each individual allows its use to ensure the quality of services in subsequent encounters, in analysis of health care disparities, and in system-level planning (e.g., determining the need for interpreters and matching patients to language-concordant providers). The subcommittee defines limited English proficiency for health care purposes as someone who speaks English less than very well. When data are shared from one entity to another (e.g., providers to health plan or health plans to states), stan - dardization helps ensure that data can be combined for like categories. Unlike race and Hispanic ethnicity, there is no Office of Management and Budget (OMB) standard for language categories, thus the subcommittee recommends that the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) develop national standard lists of spoken and written languages and codes (Recommendation 6-1a) and that entities choose their categories from the national standard list (Recommendation 4-3) according to the needs of the population they serve or study (Recommendation 4-2). When a health care entity designs its collection instruments, whether paper or electronic, it may, because of space considerations, have to use a limited number of pre-selected response categories. Therefore, such a response list should always include an “Other, please specify: __” option to ensure collection of each person’s language need (Recommendation 4-2). Some electronic data collection systems are more sophisticated, and by using keystroke recognition can accommodate hundreds of languages. DEVELOPMENT OF THE TEMPLATE The subcommittee did not identify a single existing category list that it believed was ready to serve as a national standard set. To develop a template of spoken languages spoken in the United States, the subcommittee compiled the attached list to serve as a draft template of language names and coding possibilities. (An online searchable and sortable Excel version of the list is available at: www.iom.edu/datastandardization.) Census Bureau data on languages spoken at home was a logical place to start to compile lists of languages; the Census has compiled 2

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2 RACE, ETHNICITY, AND LANGUAGE DATA approximately 530 language names corresponding to about 380 language codes. 1 Some of these languages are nearing extinction. Another group, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has established code sets for thousands of languages; the ISO language lists and particularly their coding focus on distinct languages with distinct codes, whereas the Census Bureau is more likely to give related languages the same code. The ISO codes have evolved from a first-generation two-letter coding system (ISO 639-1), to a three-letter system to accommodate additional languages primarily for bibliographic uses (ISO 639-2), to a set that now incorporates more three-letter codes to cover 6,000 known languages in the world (ISO 639-3). The ISO 639-3 codes are intended “to provide a comprehensive set of identifiers for all languages for use in a wide range of applications, including linguistics, lexicography and internationalization of information systems.”2 The subcommittee list began with the Census Bureau’s summary file 3 (SF3) technical documentation list of approximately 530 languages and 380 three digit numerical codes; 3 these are presented in the first two columns. Names that are not in all caps are considered to have a relationship to an ALL CAPS language name and receive the same code.4 The Census Bureau could not confirm whether persons speaking the ALL CAPS languages would be understood by those with the same code; the online Excel file can be sorted by the code number to see which languages have overlapping codes. Additional language names, not on the Census list, were added to the Census names column based on previous surveys conducted by Hospital Research & Educational Trust (HRET) of a representative sample of hospitals and the National Association of Community Health Centers of a representative sample of health centers;5 requests to Language Line, an interpretation and translation service; 6 and subcommittee collection of additional names from a handful of providers.7 The languages added to the initial Census list are indi- cated by an * next to the Census code number; the code number assigned was provided by Census Bureau staff to indicate how they would have coded the response; some remain uncoded. 8 This resulted in approximately 650 total language names, of which approximately 300 were identified as being used in a health care context. A column was added to indicate categories for which the Modern Language Association reports there were responses in Census 2000;9 the subcommittee ran Census PUMS data but did not find any further languages since languages with smaller numbers of persons reporting the language were aggregated together. Each language in the first column was then matched to different generations of ISO codes which are alpha - betic rather than numeric codes. ISO 639-2 codes are maintained by the Library of Congress and are coded as two letters; the ISO 639-3 codes are three letter codes currently maintained by SIL International. ISO codes start with the most comprehensive set (ISO-639-3); after the codes, the language name under the ISO categorization scheme is listed. The names of languages often have multiple possible spellings, even between the Census Bureau and ISO 639 language lists there are alternate spellings, and patients may provide an alternative spelling as well. The column, 1 U.S. Census Bureau. 2007. Census 2000 Summary File 3–Technical documentation. Appendix G language code list. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. 2 SIL International. 2009. Relationship between ISO 69- and the other parts of ISO 69. http://www.sil.org/iso639-3/relationship.asp (accessed July 20, 2009). 3 The Census Bureau included the notation n.e.c. next to a language name to means not elsewhere categorized. Some of the languages that may have fallen into these categories may now be listed in column A due to the additions the subcommittee made to the list of languages. 4 U.S. Census Bureau. 2002. Census 2000 summary file : Technical documentation. http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf3.pdf (accessed August 3, 2009). 5 Hasnain-Wynia, R., J. Yonek, D. Pierce, R. Kang, and C. H. Greising. 2006. Hospital language services for patients with limited English proficiency: Results from a national survey. Chicago, IL: Health Research and Educational Trust (HRET)/AHA; National Association of Com - munity Health Centers. 2008. Serving patients with limited English proficiency: Results of a community health center survey. Bethesda, MD: National Association of Community Health Centers and National Health Law Program. 6 Language Line Service. 2009. List of languages by Language Line Services. http://www.languageline.com/page/languages/ (accessed June 12, 2009). 7 Personal communications from Emilio Carrillo, New York Presbyterian Hospital, May 11, 2009; Alice Chen, San Francisco General Hospital, July 7, 2009; Maria Moreno and Traci Van, Sutter Health, July 22, 2009; Shiva Bidar-Sielaff, University of Wisconsin Health, May 11, 2009. 8 Personal communication, H. Shin, U.S. Census Bureau, July 13, 2009. 9 Modern Language Association. 2009. All languages reported to the U.S. Census in 2000. http://www.mla.org/map_data_langlist&mode=lang_tops (accessed May 26, 2009).

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29 APPENDIX I Other Names and Additional Information includes some of the alternate spellings and names the subcommittee encountered, but these should not be considered all of the alternative names. Languages might even be called slightly different names, such as Amish, Pennsylvania Dutch, or Pennsylvania German, or be quite different. This need not be a barrier to the list of choices developed locally as long as it is clear on a national standard list how to categorize the alternative spellings or names. Since the Census language list included names that appeared in responses to earlier censuses, some languages were thought to be no longer in use. The American Indian and Alaska Native languages were reviewed to deter- mine whether they were now considered extinct or nearly extinct by Ethnologue which tracks the world’s living languages. Ethnologue uses the term nearly extinct when “only a few elderly speakers are still living.” 10 Notations are made of this status in the column titled, Other Names and Additional Information; approximately 80 of the 650 languages were identified as extinct or nearly extinct. ADAPTATION OF THE TEMPLATE TO A NATIONAL STANDARD LIST Arriving at the possible names for a national category list appears fairly straight forward; the accompanying list is likely to identify most that will be encountered. Changes in immigration patterns over time may result in additional names; thus, category and code lists will have to be maintained (Recommendation 6-1a). Deciding on which coding scheme to adopt is more challenging. In its incidental collection of information on languages, the subcommittee encountered more instances of use of the ISO coding scheme; however, the Census has data on languages spoken at home and the degree of limited English proficiency for many languages that entities use to learn about the populations in their service areas. The subcommittee believes that there are advantages to both the Census Bureau and ISO coding schemes for languages, and does not endorse one over the other. The subcommittee indicates the need for HHS to consult with the Census Bureau, the registration authorities for the ISO codes, and others that establish unique coding for interoperability, such as HL7. If the Census coding approach were to be adopted, the subcommittee notes that the Census list of languages and codes would likely need some additional changes to be useful. The primary limitation of the Census Bureau coding scheme is that it uses the same code for multiple related languages, while the ISO list has unique codes for each language. To the extent that patients who are not English proficient need language assistance services in distinct languages in order to facilitate understanding during patient–provider interactions, a care provider’s ability to track specific languages would be enhanced by unique coding for distinct languages; this could happen by either expanding the Census codes or adopting the detail of the ISO codes. Currently, there is no specific Census code for English. Sign language, an important communication tool, is not a unique language response on the Census, and generally would code the person as speaking English. By contrast, ISO-639 has unique codes for 130 types of sign languages. For health care purposes, some entities have found a separate category noting which persons have speech loss has been useful to understand the communication needs of all patients. Further options for “declined,” “unavailable,” or “unknown” are also useful when data are being recorded to determine the portion of the service population from whom language data have been collected. The subcommittee did not generate a list of written languages, but illustrates these needs with the experiences of Kaiser Permanente and Contra Costa Health Plans in appendixes G and H. (Contra Costa used ISO two-letter codes supplemented by their own local coding). The ISO codes represent both spoken and written language names; separate script codes apply to written languages, as well, to describe their lettering. 11 10 Ethnologue. Endangered languages. http://www.ethnologue.com/nearly_extinct.asp (accessed July 20, 2009). 11 SIL International. 2009. Scope of denotation for language identifiers. http://www.sil.org/iso639-3/scope.asp (accessed July 20, 2009).

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TABLE I-1 Subcommittee Template: Comparison of Spoken Language Categories and Coding 240 Contra ISO 639-3 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-1 Reported in Kaiser Costa HRET NACHC NY Census Language Census Individual Individual Individual ISO Language the Census Permanente Health Hospital Survey of Language Presbyterian Sutter Other Names and a c d d f g h Namea Code languageb languageb languageb Nameb Additional Information 2000 Health Plan Plan Survey CHCs Line Use Hospitale SFGHe UW e Healthe Abkhazian abk ab Abkhazian 696* abk x x x Abnaki (Eastern, ABNAKI aaq, abe Western) Eastern Abnaki - extinct 823 x ACHINESE ace ace Achinese 733 x Acholi ach ach Acoli 785 ACHUMAWI acv Achumawi Nearly extinct 885 x Western Keres Acoma (same code (dialect- as Laguna) Acoma) 924 kjq Afar aar aa Afar 783* aar x x x Afghan prs (Dari Languages are Persian) pst multiple (about (Central 50% use Dari Pashto) pbt and about (Southern 35% Pashto; Pashto) pbu other major (Northern languages: Pashto) haz Hazaragi, Afghani (coded same (Hazaragi) uzb Uzbek as Pashto) Southern) 657 (Uzbek) AFRICAN, not further specified 799 x AFRIKAANS afr af Afrikaans 611 afr x x x x x Aguaceto Aguacateco 968 agu AHTENA Ahtena Nearly extinct 848 aht x aib (China), ain Ainu ain (Japan) Ainu 723 (Japan) aka (macro with 2 sub: fat (Fanti) and twi Akan aka ak Akan 796 (Twi) x x Aklan language of Phillipines include: Malaynon and Aklan Akeanon 743* mlz (Malaynon) x ALABAMA Alabama 915 akz x sqi (macro with ALBANIAN sqi / alb sq Albanian 638 4 subs) x x x x x x x x ALEUT ale ALEUT 800 ale x Carolina Algonquin - ALGONQUIAN Algonquin extinct 806 alq x x American AMERICAN INDIAN Indian 966 x AMHARIC amh am Amharic 780 amh x x x x x x x x apa (multiple other 639-3 Apache APACHE codes) languages 862 x x

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TABLE I-1 Subcommittee Template: Comparison of Spoken Language Categories and Coding Contra ISO 639-3 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-1 Reported in Kaiser Costa HRET NACHC NY Census Language Census Individual the Census Permanente Health Hospital Survey of Language Presbyterian Sutter Individual Individual ISO Language Other Names and a c d d f g h Namea Code languageb languageb languageb Nameb Additional Information 2000 Health Plan Plan Survey CHCs Line Use Hospitale SFGHe UW e Healthe ara (macro with 30 ARABIC ara ar Arabic 777 sublanguages) x x x x x x x x x x Arabic, Arabic Morocan Moroccan 777* ary x ayh (Hadrami) ayn (Sanaani) Arabic Yemen acq (Ta'izzi- (multiple Arabic Yemen possibilities) 777* Adeni) x aii (Assyrian Neo-Aramaic) jpa (Aramaic, Jewish Palestine) sam (Aramaic Numerous Aramaic (see below Samaritan) cld languages with Chaldean with same (Chaldean Neo Aramaic in code) name 779 Aramaic) x ARAPAHO arp Arapaho 807 arp x ARAWAKIAN arw Arawak 974 arw x ARIKARA Arikara Nearly extinct 934 ari x Arkansas Quapaw 914 qua ARMENIAN hye / arm hy Armenian 655 hye x x x x x x The Ashanti Ashanti (see Twi language is which has same Twi (see code) below) Asante 796 x Asian Indian 662 ASSAMESE asm as Assamese 672 asm x x Assiniboine 907 asb Assyrian Neo- Assyrian Aramaic 779 aii x x x x ath Athapascan ATHAPASCAN (collective) languages 847 x ATSINA Gros Ventre 808 ats x ATSUGEWI Atsugewi Nearly extinct 886 atw x Austrian Bavarian 607 bar aym (macro with 2 sublanguages: Central and AYMARA aym ay Aymara 973 Southern) x x x aze (macro with 2 subs: North and AZERBAIJANI aze az Azerbaijani Azeri 690 South) x x x AZTECAN Uto-Aztecan 956 azc (639-5) x x msa (macro) zim (Malay Bahasa Kehangsaan Bahasa (same code individual msa/may Ms (Indonesia) Bahasa as Malay) (macro) (macro) Malaysian (Malaysia) 739 language) x BALINESE ban Balinese 734 ban x 241

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TABLE I-1 Subcommittee Template: Comparison of Spoken Language Categories and Coding 242 Contra ISO 639-3 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-1 Reported in Kaiser Costa HRET NACHC NY Census Language Census Individual the Census Permanente Health Hospital Survey of Language Presbyterian Sutter Individual Individual ISO Language Other Names and a c d d f g h Namea Code languageb languageb languageb Nameb Additional Information 2000 Health Plan Plan Survey CHCs Line Use Hospitale SFGHe UW e Healthe bal (macro with 3 subs: Eastern, Southern, BALOCHI bal Baluchi 659 Western) x Bambara bam bm Bambara 793* bam x x uncoded; code same Banjuni (see Swahili) as Swahili) x Northern Bannock pao Paiute 941 BANTU bnt Bantu (other) 792 x x Bari bfa Bari 786 Bashkir bak bak ba Bashkir 688* x x x BASQUE eus eus / baq eu Basque 697 x x x x x Bassa bsq Bassa 796* x Behdini's code (bdf) was retired from use and suggest kmr Northern Behdini Kurdish 658* kmr x Bembe Bembe 792 bmb BENGALI ben bn Bengali 664 ben x x x x x x x x ber BERBER (collective) Berber (other) 781 x x Bhili Bhili 669 bhb Bhojpuri bho Bhojpuri 668* bho x BIELORUSSIAN bel be Belarusian Belorussian 640 bel x x x BIHARI bih bh Bihari 668 x x bik (macro with BIKOL bik Bikol 747 5 subs) x Bisayan BISAYAN (has (Cebuano is a separate code from bsb (Brunei) subset of Cebuano) bsy (Sabah) Bisayan) 743 x x x x Bislama bis bis bi Bislama 604* x x x BLACKFOOT bla bla Siksika 809 x Bosnian bos bos bs Bosnian 649 x x x x x x x BRAHUI brh Brahui 699 x BRETON bre bre br Breton 634 x x x x BUGINESE bug bug Buginese 730 x x BULGARIAN bul bul bg Bulgarian 647 x x x x x BURMESE mya mya / bur my Burmese 717 x x x x x x BURUSHASKI bsk Burushaski 707 x Bushman xuu Kxoe Khoe 790 Kado, Caddoe; Nearly CADDO cad cad Caddo extinct 935 x Cahto ktw Kato Extinct 861 CAHUILLA chl Cahuilla Nearly extinct 949 x CAJUN frc Cajun, French 624 x x

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TABLE I-1 Subcommittee Template: Comparison of Spoken Language Categories and Coding Contra ISO 639-3 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-1 Reported in Kaiser Costa HRET NACHC NY Census Language Census Individual the Census Permanente Health Hospital Survey of Language Presbyterian Sutter Individual Individual ISO Language Other Names and c d d f g h Namea Codea languageb languageb languageb Nameb Additional Information 2000 Health Plan Plan Survey CHCs Line Use Hospitale SFGHe UW e Healthe Cambodian (same Cambodian code as Khmer) (see Khmer) 726 x x Kanjobal, Canjobal Western 968 knj x yue (sub of CANTONESE Cantonese 711 Chinese) x x x x x x x x x x car (Caribe) crb (Carib Carib 974 Island) CAROLINIAN Carolinian 751 cal x CATALONIAN cat ca Catalan 626 cat x x x x x Caucasian CAUCASIAN cau (other) 696 x CAYUGA Cayuga 929 cay x Cebuano ceb Cebuano 744 ceb x x Many languages belong to Chadic group and are used beyond borders of Chad; in Chad itself shu (Chadian Chadian Chadic Arabic is a CHADIC Arabic common language 782 Arabic) x Chaldean Neo- Chaldean Aramaic Chaldean dialects 779 cld x x x Cham cjm (Eastern), (Eastern, CHAM Western) 735 cja (Western) x CHAMORRO cha ch Chamorro 752 cha x x x x Chaochow; Chao-Chou; Chaochow; Chao- Chaozhou Chou; Chaozhou (see Min Nan- (code differs from Min same ISO Nan) code) 708 x x x CHASTA COSTA Chasta Costa extinct 859 x Ute-Southern Paiute (see CHEMEHUEVI below) 943 x CHEROKEE chr chr Cherokee 933 x x x CHETEMACHA ctm Chitimacha Extinct 921 CHEYENNE chy chy Cheyenne 810 x CHIBCHAN chb chb Chibcha 975 x Chickasaw cic Chickasaw 916 zho (macro with 13 subs:including CHINESE zho / chi zh Chinese 708 cmn Mandarin) x x x Chinese Wu, Chinese, Wu, Shanghainese Shanghainese 715* wuu x Chinook Chinook Nearly extinct 883 chh Chinook CHINOOK JARGON chn Jargon 965 chn x Chippewa Chippewa Chippewah; Chipewyan 819 ciw x 24

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TABLE I-1 Subcommittee Template: Comparison of Spoken Language Categories and Coding 244 Contra ISO 639-3 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-1 Reported in Kaiser Costa HRET NACHC NY Census Language Census Individual the Census Permanente Health Hospital Survey of Language Presbyterian Sutter Individual Individual ISO Language Other Names and c d d f g h Namea Codea languageb languageb languageb Nameb Additional Information 2000 Health Plan Plan Survey CHCs Line Use Hospitale SFGHe UW e Healthe Mescalero- Chiricahua CHIRICAHUA Apache 978 apm x CHIWERE Nearly extinct 908 x CHOCTAW cho Choctaw 916 cho x retired code CHUMASH for Chumash Extinct 901 x Chuukese chk Chuukese 761 chk x x CHUVASH chv cv Chuvash 684 chv x Circassian (see Circassian (same Caucasian code as Caucasian) languages) 696 CLALLUM Clallam Klallam; Nearly extinct 835 clm x COAST MIWOK Miwok, Coast Extinct 870 csi x COCOMARICOPA Maricopa 892 mrc x Cocopah (see Delta River Yuman) Cocopa Delta River Yuman 896 coc COEUR D'ALENE Coeur d'Alene Nearly extinct 836 crd x Columbia- COLUMBIA Wenatchi 837 col x Okanagan- Colville Colville 841 oka COMANCHE Comanche 938 com x Northwest Concow Maidu Konkau; Nearly extinct 868 mjd Coorge,Kurja, Khurgi, Coorgi kfa Kodava Kadagi 698 Corsican cos cos co Corsican 619* x x x Coushatta cku Koasati 919 COWLITZ cow Cowlitz Extinct 838 x cre (macro with 6 CREE cr Cree 811 sublanguages) cre x x Creek mus Creek 920 mus many codes to match different Creole (many Creole types of creole choices) 623* x x CROATIAN hrv hrv / scr hr Croatian 650 x x x x x CROW cro Crow 904 x kvn (Border Kuna) cuk (San Blas Border Kuna Cuna Kuna) San Blas Kuna 975 CUPENO cup Cupeno Extinct 950 x cus Cushitic CUSHITE (collective) (other) 783 x x CZECH ces ces / cze cs Czech 642 x x x x x x DAKOTA dak dak Dakota 907 x x x DANISH dan dan da Danish 615 x x x x x

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TABLE I-1 Subcommittee Template: Comparison of Spoken Language Categories and Coding Contra ISO 639-3 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-1 Reported in Kaiser Costa HRET NACHC NY Census Language Census Individual the Census Permanente Health Hospital Survey of Language Presbyterian Sutter Individual Individual ISO Language Other Names and a c d d f g h Namea Code languageb languageb languageb Nameb Additional Information 2000 Health Plan Plan Survey CHCs Line Use Hospitale SFGHe UW e Healthe prs (gbz for Dari Dari Dari Persian 656 Zoroastrian) x x x del (macro with DELAWARE del Delaware 812 2 subs) x DELTA RIVER YUMAN Cocopa 896 coc x Kumiai, Northern DIEGUENO Diegueno Ipai 895 dih x din (macro with Dinka din Dinka 784 5 sub) x x x x dra Dravidian DRAVIDIAN (collective) (other) 698 x DUTCH nld/dut nl Dutch Flemish 610 nld x x x x x x x Dyula dyu Dyula Diula 793* dyu x EFIK efi Efik 797 efi x English eng eng en English x x x x x x English Creoles English-based English Creoles Belize, Belize, Guyanese cpe Creoles Guyanese 601 Eosture Eosture uncoded uncoded x Numerous ESKIMO possibilities 802 x x x est (macro with ESTONIAN est et Estonian 680 2 subs) x x Ethiopian Ethiopian See Amharic, Tigrigna 780* x x Ewe ewe ee Ewe 796 ewe x EYAK Eyak Nearly extinct 865 ewk x fat (sub of Fanti fat Fanti 796 Akan) x FAROESE fao fo Faroese 618 fao x x prs (same code as Dari Farsi Eastern Farsi Persian) Persian Farsi Persian 656 x x x x x x x x x FIJIAN fij fij fj Fijian 771 x x x Filipino fil fil Filipino 742 x x x FINNISH fin fin fi Finnish 679 x x x x x x nld (same as Flemish Dutch) nld/dut nl Flemish 610 x x x x Foo Chow (see FUCHOW) see Min Dong 713* x FOOTHILL NORTH Yokuts (single YOKUTS code; also (distinguished from includes Tachi- Tachi-Valley Yokuts) Valley Yokuts) Nearly extinct 876 yok x multiple languages such as dru (Rukai) sai (Saisiyat) tay 24 FORMOSAN (same (Tayal) tsy code as Taiwanese) Formosan 714 (Tsou) x x x

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TABLE I-1 Subcommittee Template: Comparison of Spoken Language Categories and Coding 246 Contra ISO 639-3 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-1 Reported in Kaiser Costa HRET NACHC NY Census Language Census Individual the Census Permanente Health Hospital Survey of Language Presbyterian Sutter Individual Individual ISO Language Other Names and c d d f g h Namea Codea languageb languageb languageb Nameb Additional Information 2000 Health Plan Plan Survey CHCs Line Use Hospitale SFGHe UW e Healthe FOX (see Meskawkie) Fox 813 sac x FRENCH fra/fre fr French 620 fra x x x x x x x x x French Canadian (see FRENCH) 620* x multiple Cree French Cree FRENCH CREE (see Michif) 816 languages x French-based Creoles and FRENCH CREOLE cpf Pidgin (other) 623 x x x frr frs fry frr Northern; frs frr (No.) frs Eastern; fry (East) fry fy FRISIAN West (Western) Frisian 612 Western x x Min Dong Fuzhou; Foochow, Min FUCHOW Chinese Dong; Foochownese 713 cdo x x x x Fukianese (see Min Nan) 714* x Fukienese Fukien (see Min Nan) (see Min Nan) Fukien; Fukianese 714 x x x x x ful (macro with 9 sub Fulah (also FULANI languages) ful ff Fula) 794 X x x x x x Fur fvr Fur 789 Ga gaa gaa Ga 796 x Gaddang gdk Gadang uncoded x Garifuna cab Garifuna Caribe 974 Georgian kat kat/geo ka Georgian 696 x x x x GERMAN deu deu/ger de German 607 x x x x x x x x x multiple languages (see specific codes: Ga, Ibo, Igbo, Krahn, Kru, Ghani (multiple Twi, Ashanti, languages coded the Bassa, Akan, same) Ewe, Fanti) Ghanian 796* x GILBERTESE gil Gilbertese 753 gil x gon (macro GONDI gon Gondi 700 with 2 subs) x GORONTALO gor Gorontalo 749 gor x GREEK ell/gre el Greek 637 ell x x x x x x x x x Greenlandic kal kl Greenlandic 615* kal x x x Gros Ventre Gros Ventre Nearly extinct 808 ats Guamanian (see Chamorro, same code) cha ch Chammoro 752 cha grn (macro language with 5 Guarani grn gn Guarani 976 subs) x x x multiple Guatemalan Guatemalean 968 lanugages x GUJARATHI guj gu Gujarati 667 guj x x x x x x x x

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TABLE I-1 Subcommittee Template: Comparison of Spoken Language Categories and Coding Contra ISO 639-3 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-1 Reported in Kaiser Costa HRET NACHC NY Census Language Census Individual the Census Permanente Health Hospital Survey of Language Presbyterian Sutter Individual Individual ISO Language Other Names and Namea Codea languageb languageb languageb Nameb Additional Information 2000c Health Pland Pland Surveyf CHCsg Line Useh Hospitale SFGHe UW e Healthe Sea Island GULLAH Creole English 605 gul x GUR Farefare 795 gur x Gwichin (see Kuchin) gwi Gwich'in 852 gwi Northern Haida - nearly HAIDA hai Haida extinct 846 hai x Haitian, Haitian Creole hat ht Haitian Creole 623 hat x x x x x hak (sub of Hakka HAKKA Chinese 709 Chinese) x x x x x HAN Han Nearly extinct 849 haa x Hausa hau ha Hausa 782 hau Havasupai- Walapai- HAVASUPAI Yavapai 898 yuf x HAWAIIAN haw Hawaiian 776 haw x x x Hawaiian Hawaiian Pidgin hwc Creole 603 x x x x HEBREW heb heb he Hebrew 778 x x x x x x x x HICHITA 918 x HIDATSA hid Hidatsa 905 x HINDI hin hin hi Hindi 663 x x x x x x x x x x Hindi Fijian hif Hindi Fiji 663/671 x hno (Hindko, Northern) hnd (Hindko, Hindko Hindko 663* Southern) x hmn (Macro Hmong hmn Hmong (2 types) xx 722 with 24 subs) x x Ho Chunk Ho-Chunk 909 win Hokkien (same code as Fukien and Min Hokkien (see Fukien, Southern Min Nan) Min Nan) from Fukian 714 x HOPI Hopi 948 hop x Hopi-Tewa (see Tewa) Tewa (USA) 962 tew Hualapai 899 Huichole Huichol 957 hch Hunanese hsn Xiang Chinese Xiang, Hunan, Hsiang x HUNGARIAN hun hu Hungarian 682 hun x x x x x x x x HUPA hup Hupa Nearly extinct 860 hup x Huron (see Wyandot) Extinct 932 Ibanag ibg Ibanag 742* x Ibibio ibb Ibibio 797 Ibo (also see Igbo) 796 x x ICELANDIC isl isl/ice is Icelandic 617 x x x x Igbo ibo ibo ig Igbo Ibo 796 x x multiple Igorot ethnic groups in Igorot Igorot Phillipines 746 languages ILOCANO ilo Iloko Ilokano 746 ilo x x x x x x x 24

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TABLE I-1 Subcommittee Template: Comparison of Spoken Language Categories and Coding 24 Contra ISO 639-3 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-1 Reported in Kaiser Costa HRET NACHC NY Census Language Census Individual the Census Permanente Health Hospital Survey of Language Presbyterian Sutter Individual Individual ISO Language Other Names and c d d f g h Namea Codea languageb languageb languageb Nameb Additional Information 2000 Health Plan Plan Survey CHCs Line Use Hospitale SFGHe UW e Healthe NORTHWEST MAIDU (see Concow) Nearly extinct 869 x nor (macro with NORWEGIAN nor no Norwegian 616 2 subs) x x x x x x x Norwegian Norwegian Bokmal nob nb Bokmal 616 nob x Norwegian Norwegian Nynorsk nno nn Nynorsk 616 nno x NOT REPORTED 999 nub Nubian NUBIAN (collective) Languages 787 x Nuer Nuer 785 nus x x NUKUORO Nukuoro 775 nkr x Occitan oci oc Occitan 621* oci x x x Oglala see Lakota 907 oji (macro with OJIBWA oji oj Ojibwa Ojibway 819 7 subs) x x OKANOGAN Okanagan 841 oka x OMAHA oma Omaha-Ponca 911 x ONEIDA one Oneida 927 x ONONDAGA ono Onondaga 928 x ORIYA ori ori or Oriya 670 x x x x orm (macro Oromo orm om Oromo 783 with 4 subs) x x x x OSAGE osa Osage Nearly extinct 912 osa x Ossetian, OSSETE oss os Ossetic 661 oss x possibly Tephuan, Otham Southeastern 954* stp x Other African languages composite x Other and unspecified languages Miscellaneous 999 x x OTHER ATHAPASCAN-EYAK LANGUAGES 861 Other Indic languages composite x Other Indo-European languages composite x Other language composite x x x Other Native North American languages composite x Other Slavic languages composite x Other specified languages x

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TABLE I-1 Subcommittee Template: Comparison of Spoken Language Categories and Coding Contra ISO 639-3 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-1 Reported in Kaiser Costa HRET NACHC NY Census Language Census Individual the Census Permanente Health Hospital Survey of Language Presbyterian Sutter Individual Individual ISO Language Other Names and Namea Codea languageb languageb languageb Nameb Additional Information 2000c Health Pland Pland Surveyf CHCsg Line Useh Hospitale SFGHe UW e Healthe Other West Germanic languages composite x oto OTO-MANGUEN (collective) Oto-Manguen 971 x otm (Eastern Highland) ots (Estado de Mexico), otz Ixtenco , ote Mezquital), otq (Queretano), ott (Temoaya), otx Otomi (9 (Texcatepec), oto individual Otomi (collective) languages) 971 otl (Tilapa) OTTAWA Ottawa 820 otw x PACHUCO 628 x x Pacific Gulf Yupik (see PACIFIC GULF Yupik for other YUPIK languages) 801 ems x kfx (Kulla) pfz (Mahasu) phr Pahari Pahari 665* (Potwari) Northerrn Paiute (see Ute-Southern PAIUTE pao Paiute below) 940 x PAKISTAN, nec 676 x x x x PALAU pau pau Paluan 759 x x Paleo-siberian 804* x PAMPANGAN pam pam Pampanga 748 x x x PANAMINT par Nearly extinct 947 x PANGASINAN pag pag Pangasinan 745 x x PANJABI pan pan pa Panjabi 665 x x x x x x see Tohon Papago O'odham 954 ood PAPIA MENTAE pap Papiamento 630 pap x pst (Central) pbt (Southern) PASHTO Pashto 657 pbu (Northern) x x x x x Malecite- Passamaquod PASSAMAQUODDY dy 821 pqm x gcf (Guadeloupean Creole French), jam (Jamaican Creole), gcr (Guianese Patois (several 2 PATOIS options) 622 Creole French) x x x

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TABLE I-1 Subcommittee Template: Comparison of Spoken Language Categories and Coding 26 Contra ISO 639-3 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-1 Reported in Kaiser Costa HRET NACHC NY Census Language Census Individual the Census Permanente Health Hospital Survey of Language Presbyterian Sutter Individual Individual ISO Language Other Names and c d d f g h Namea Codea languageb languageb languageb Nameb Additional Information 2000 Health Plan Plan Survey CHCs Line Use Hospitale SFGHe UW e Healthe PATWIN (dialect of Wintu but Wintu has different code) 874 x PAWNEE Pawnee Nearly extinct 936 paw x PENNSYLVANIA Pennsylvania Pennsylvania Dutch, DUTCH German Amish, Amish-German 608 pdc x x x PENOBSCOT Extinct 822 x fas (macro with 2 subs: prs Dari Persian and pes Western PERSIAN fa Persian 656 Persian) x x x Phillipine Phillipine Other Other 742 x PICURIS (see Taos and separate code for Tiwa) 959 x cpi (Pidgin English, Chinese), wes (Pidgin Cameroon), pcm (Pidgin, Nigerian), tvy (Pidgin Timor), dep (Pidgin multiple types PIDGIN of Pidgin Delaware Pidgin - extinct 604 Delaware) x PIMA Pima Bajo 954 pia x Pit River (see (see Achumawi) Achumawi) 885 PLAINS MIWOK Plains Miwok Nearly extinct 871 pmw x POLISH pol pl Polish 645 pol x x x x x x x x x x POLYNESIAN Polynesian 766 x Central Pomo, Southeasten Pomo, Southern Pomo - nearly extinct; Eastern Pomo, Northeastern Pomo, POMO Northern - extinct 888 pmm (Pomo) x PONAPEAN pon Pohnpeian 760 pon x x Omaha-Ponca (both languages PONCA (see Omaha given same but different code) code) 913 oma x PORTUGUESE por pt Portuguese 629 por x x x x x x x x x x Portuguese- based Creoles and Pidgins Portuguese Creole cpp (other) 629 x POTAWATOMI Potawatomi 824 pot x

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TABLE I-1 Subcommittee Template: Comparison of Spoken Language Categories and Coding Contra ISO 639-3 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-1 Reported in Kaiser Costa HRET NACHC NY Census Language Census Individual the Census Permanente Health Hospital Survey of Language Presbyterian Sutter Individual Individual ISO Language Other Names and c d d f g h Namea Codea languageb languageb languageb Nameb Additional Information 2000 Health Plan Plan Survey CHCs Line Use Hospitale SFGHe UW e Healthe Franco- PROVENCAL Provencal 621 frp x x PUGET slh (South SOUND PUGET SOUND Puget Sound) SALISH, SALISH str (Straits) Southern 842 x Pular fuf Pular 794 x Punjabi pan pan pa Punjabi 665 x pus (macro with 3 sub Pashto Pushto languages) pus ps Pushto 656 x (See Puget Puyallup (see Puget Sound Salish, Sound Salish) Southern) 842 QUAPAW Quapaw Nearly extinct 914 qua x Quechan Quechan 894 yum x x x x que (macro with 44 subs of Quechua or QUECHUA que qu Quechua 972 Quichua) Quiche Quiche 968 quc x x Quileute Quileute Quileute; Nearly extinct 830 qui QUINAULT Quinault Extinct 843 qun x raj (macro with RAJASTHANI raj Rajasthani 669 6 subs) x RAROTONGAN rar Rarotongan 773 rar x Rhaeto- RHAETO-ROMANIC rm Romanic 632 x x Romanian Romanian ron/rum ro (See below) Romanian 631 ron x x x x x x x Romance; Romansch roh rm Romansch Romany;Romansch 632 roh x rom (macro with 7 subs of Romany or Romany see ROMANY above too 678 Romani) x RUMANIAN ron/rum ro Romanian 631 ron RUSSIAN rus ru Russian 639 rus x x x x x x x x x x SAHAPTIAN (close to Nez Perce and Klamath) 882 x SAHARAN 788 x SAINT LAWRENCE Central ISLAND YUPIK Siberian Yupik 804 ess x slh (South Puget Sound) SALISH; Straits Salish - SALISH SALISH nearly extinct 839 str (Straits) SAMOAN smo sm Samoan 767 smo x x x x x x x x 2

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TABLE I-1 Subcommittee Template: Comparison of Spoken Language Categories and Coding 2 Contra ISO 639-3 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-1 Reported in Kaiser Costa HRET NACHC NY Census Language Census Individual the Census Permanente Health Hospital Survey of Language Presbyterian Sutter Individual Individual ISO Language Other Names and c d d f g h Namea Codea languageb languageb languageb Nameb Additional Information 2000 Health Plan Plan Survey CHCs Line Use Hospitale SFGHe UW e Healthe multiple languages (Uralic and Samoyed roots like Enets, Forest Samoyed (see other enf and Enets, Uralic languages) Tundra enh) 683 Apache, Western (differs from other Apache SAN CARLOS codes) 979 apw x Apache, Western San Carlos Apache (differs from (different code than other Apache Apache) codes) 979 apw poe (S.J. Atzingo Popoloca), mjc (S.J. Colorado Mixtec), zab (S.J. Guelavia Zapoteca), xtz San Juan (S. J. Teita (multiple San Juan languages) 962 Mixtec) SANDIA (different code than Isleta) 961 x Sango sag sag sg Sango 798* x x Sanskrit san san sa Sanskrit 662 x Santa Clara (dialect of Tewa) 962 SANTIAM kyl Kalapuya Nearly extinct 878 x SARAMACCA srm Saramaccan 606 x Scandinavian languages Scandinavian languages composite x sco (Scots) gla gd (Scottish (Scottish Scots; Scottic SCOTTIC GAELIC sco gla Gaelic) Gaelic; Scotish; Scottic Gaelic; 636 Gaelic x x x SEBUANO ceb Cebuano 744 ceb x Seminole 920 SENECA Seneca 930 see x SERBIAN srp/scc sr Serbian 651 srp x x x x x x x x hbs (macro with 3 subs: bos Bosnian, hrv Croatian, Serbo- SERBOCROATIAN sh Croatian 649 srp Serbian) x x x x x Serokoli Serokola uncoded x SERRANO Serrano Nearly extinct 952 ser x

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TABLE I-1 Subcommittee Template: Comparison of Spoken Language Categories and Coding Contra ISO 639-3 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-1 Reported in Kaiser Costa HRET NACHC NY Census Language Census Individual the Census Permanente Health Hospital Survey of Language Presbyterian Sutter Individual Individual ISO Language Other Names and c d d f g h Namea Codea languageb languageb languageb Nameb Additional Information 2000 Health Plan Plan Survey CHCs Line Use Hospitale SFGHe UW e Healthe sot (Southern) Sesotho st Sotho 792* nso (Northern) sot nso x x x Setswana tsn tn Tswana 792* tsn x x x wuu (sub of Chinese with Shanghainese Wu Chinese 715 own code) x x x x x SHASTAN Shasta Extinct 889 sht x SHAWNEE Shawnee 825 sjw x Shona sna sn Shona 792 sna x x x x SHOSHONI Shoshoni 946 shh x SIBERIAN LANGUAGES, nec 727 Central Siberian Yupik Siberian Yupik 804 ess Sicilian scn Sicilian 619* scn x Southern SIERRA MIWOK Sierra Miwok Nearly extinct 872 skd x SINDHI snd sd Sindhi 675 snd x x x Sinhalese/Sin SINHALESE sin si hala 677 sin x x x x x sio Siouan Sioux (collective) Languages 907 SIUSLAW Siuslaw Extinct 879 sis x Slavic sla Slavic (Other) 649 x SLOVAK slk slk/slo sk Slovak 646 x x x x x SLOVENE slv slv sl Slovenian 652 x x x Sogdian sog sog Sogdian 689* x Somali som som so Somali 783 x x x x x x x Songhai Songhai son languages 789 x x Soninke snk Soninke 793* snk x x x SONORAN (n.e.c) 957-958 x Central Sorani Kurdish 658* ckb x wen (collective) hsb hsb (Upper (Upper) Sorbian) dsb dsb Sorbian xx Sorbian languages (Lower) languages 2 types 644* (Lower) x South South American sai American Indian (Other) (collective) Indian (Other) x SOUTHERN MAIDU Nisenan Nearly extinct 869 nsz x (coded same SOUTHERN PAIUTE as Ute- (different code than Southern Ute) Paiute) 942 ute x SPANISH spa es Spanish 625 spa x x x x x x x x x x 29 SPOKANE Spokane 982 spo x

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TABLE I-1 Subcommittee Template: Comparison of Spoken Language Categories and Coding 260 Contra ISO 639-3 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-1 Reported in Kaiser Costa HRET NACHC NY Census Language Census Individual the Census Permanente Health Hospital Survey of Language Presbyterian Sutter Individual Individual ISO Language Other Names and c d d f g h Namea Codea languageb languageb languageb Nameb Additional Information 2000 Health Plan Plan Survey CHCs Line Use Hospitale SFGHe UW e Healthe SUDANIC 784 x sun (Sudanese) apd (Sudanese Arabic) pga Sudanese/Nuer- (Sudanese Sudanese Sudanese SUNDANESE su Sudanese Arabic 741 Creole Arabic) sun x x x x x x SUNDANESE 740 Suquamish Suquamish 842 squ swa (macro with 2 subs) swh (swahili as an individual swa SWAHILI (macro) sw SWAHILI 791 language) x x x x x x x SWEDISH swe sv Swedish 614 swe x x x x x x Swiss gsw Swiss German 607 gsw Sylhetti Sylheti 664* syl x syr (macro language with Assyrian and Chaldean Neo SYRIAC syr Syriac 779 Aramaic) x Yokuts (single TACHI (different code code; see also from Foothill North Foothill North Yokuts) Yokuts) Valley Yokuts 877 yok x Tadzhik (does not appear to TADZHIK be (distinguished from distinguished Tajik) from Tajik) 660 x TAGALOG tgl tl Tagalog 742 tgl x x x x x x x x x x Tahitian tah ty Tahitian 772 tah dialect of Taiwanese (see Min Hokkien then of Nan) Taiwanese Tawainese; Tiawanese 714 Min Nan x x x x x Tajik tgk tg Tajik 656* tgk x x TAMIL tam ta Tamil 704 tam x x x x x x TANACROSS Tanacross Nearly extinct 856 tcb x TANAINA Tanaina Nearly extinct 854 tfn x taa (Upper) tau Lower Tanana - nearly TANANA Tanana extinct 855 (Lower) x Northern Tiwa Taos (see also (Taos is Picuris) dialect of) 959 twf

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TABLE I-1 Subcommittee Template: Comparison of Spoken Language Categories and Coding Contra ISO 639-3 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-1 Reported in Kaiser Costa HRET NACHC NY Census Language Census Individual the Census Permanente Health Hospital Survey of Language Presbyterian Sutter Individual Individual ISO Language Other Names and a c d d f g h Namea Code languageb languageb languageb Nameb Additional Information 2000 Health Plan Plan Survey CHCs Line Use Hospitale SFGHe UW e Healthe tar (Central), tac (Lowland), thh (Northern), tcu (Sutheastern), twr Tarahumara Tarahumara 957 (Southwestern) tsz (Purepecha) pua (Western Highland TARASCAN Purepecha 969 Purepecha) x x tat (Tatar) crh (Crimean Tatar tat chr tt Tatar 688 Tartar) x x x Teluga 701* x TELUGU tel te Telegu Telegu 701 tel x x x x x Temne Timne Themne 794 tem Teochew (related to Teochau Southern Min) uncoded x Twe (Indonesia) TEWA (Hopi-Tewa) Tew (USA) Tewa 962 x THAI tha tha th Thai 720 x x x x x x x x x TIBETAN bod bod/tib bo Tibetan 716 x x x x x x x Tigre tig tig Tigre 780* x Tigrinian; Tigrigna; Tigrigna tir tir ti Tigrinya Tigrinya 780 x x x x x x TILLAMOOK til Tillamook Extinct 844 x TIWA lax Tiwa 960 x TLINGIT tli tli Tlingit 866 x Tohano Tohono O'Odham O'Odham Tohono Odam 954 ood x Taishanese (dialect of Cantonese, but understood only with great difficulty by Cantonese speakers; Toishanese, Toisan, Toishan Toishan, Toisanese 711 x x x TOKELAUAN tkl Tokelau 770 tkl x Tonga [African Tonga tog Nyasa] 792 tog x Tonga [Tonga TONGAN ton to Islands] Tonganese 768 ton x x x x x x TONKAWA Tonkawa Extinct 902 tqw x TOWA Jemez Walatowa 963 tow x 261

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TABLE I-1 Subcommittee Template: Comparison of Spoken Language Categories and Coding 262 Contra ISO 639-3 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-1 Reported in Kaiser Costa HRET NACHC NY Census Language Census Individual the Census Permanente Health Hospital Survey of Language Presbyterian Sutter Individual Individual ISO Language Other Names and c d d f g h Namea Codea languageb languageb languageb Nameb Additional Information 2000 Health Plan Plan Survey CHCs Line Use Hospitale SFGHe UW e Healthe trc (Trique of San Juan Copala), trs (Trique, Chicahuaxtla), trq (triqui, Trique 971 Itunxosa) x TRUKESE chk chk Chuukese Trukee 761 x x Tshiluba lua lua Luba-Lulua 792* x TSIMSHIAN tsi tsi Tsimshian 884 x x x Tsonga tso tso ts Tsonga 792* x x x TUBATULABAL tub Tubatulabal Nearly extinct 953 x Tulu tul Tulu 698 tuw (ISO-639- Tungusic TUNGUS 5) languages 695 x Tupi Languages (about 70 languages in S. America; Tupi-Guarani tup is of the best TUPI-GUARANI (collective) known) 976 x TURKISH tur tr Turkish 691 tur x x x x x x x x x TURKMEN tuk tk Turkmen 692 tuk x x x x TUSCARORA Tuscarora Nearly extinct 931 tus x Northern and ttm (Northern) Southern TUTCHONE Tutchone 858 tce (Southern) x TWANA Extinct 845 x Twi (sub of Twi twi twi tw macro Akan) Twi 796 x x x x x x UIGHUR uig uig ug Uighur 689 x x UKRAINIAN ukr ukr uk Ukrainian 641 x x x x x x x x x ULITHEAN uli Ulithian 762 x Umatilla uma Umatilla 882 Yuman (Upriver), River UP RIVER YUMAN Mohave Yuman 891 mov x Havasupai- Walapai- UPLAND YUMAN Yavapai Upper Colorado Yuman 897 yuf x Upper UPPER CHEHALIS; UPPER CHEHALIS Chehalis extinct 834 cjh x UPPER CHINOOK Wasco- (see Wasco) Wishram 883 wac x UPPER Upper KUSKOKWIM Kuskokwim Nearly extinct 853 kuu x UPPER TANANA Upper Tanana 857 tau x URALIC LANGUAGES, OTHER 683 URDU urd ur Urdu Urdu-Pakistan 671 urd x x x x x x x x x

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TABLE I-1 Subcommittee Template: Comparison of Spoken Language Categories and Coding Contra ISO 639-3 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-1 Reported in Kaiser Costa HRET NACHC NY Census Language Census Individual the Census Permanente Health Hospital Survey of Language Presbyterian Sutter Individual Individual ISO Language Other Names and c d d f g h Namea Codea languageb languageb languageb Nameb Additional Information 2000 Health Plan Plan Survey CHCs Line Use Hospitale SFGHe UW e Healthe Ute (Southern UTE Paiute) 945 ute x uzb (macro Uzbek uzb uz Uzbek 689 with 2 subs) x x VIETNAMESE vie vi Vietnamese 728 vie x x x x x x x x x x Bisayan (has a separate Visayan Cebuano code), Sebuano 743 ceb Volapuk vol vo Volapuk Volapuk uncoded vol x Havasupai- Walapai- WALAPAI Yavapai 899 yuf x WAPPO Wappo Extinct 923 wao x Warm Springs Tenino 882 tqn Wasco- Wasco Wishram 883 wac WASHO was Washo Nearly extinct 890 was x WELSH cym/wel cy Welsh 633 cym x x x columbia- Wenatchee Wenatchi 837 col Apache, Western (differs from White Mountain is other Apache dialect of Western White Mountain codes) Apache 979 apw WICHITA Nearly extinct 937 x Slovenian language Windish group 644 WINNEBAGO win Ho-Chunk 909 x WINTUN wit Wintu Nearly extinct 875 x WIYOT wiy Wiyot Extinct 826 x WOLEAI-ULITHI woe Woleaian 763 x Wolof wol wol wo Wolof 794 x x x x x x x wuu (sub of Chinese with WU Wu Chinese 715 own code) x x x WYANDOT (see Huron) wya Wyandot Extinct 932 x Xhosa xho xho xh Xhosa 792 x x x Yakama 882 YAKUT sah sah Yakut 693 x YAPESE yap yap Yapese 764 x x YAQUI yaq Yaqui 955 x Havasupai- YAVAPAI (different Walapai- code than Havasupai) Yavapai 900 yuf x Abakan Tartar, Yennisej Yenisei Khakas Tartar, Xakas 683 kjh yid (macro with YIDDISH yid yi Yiddish 609 2 subs) x x x x x x x Yoruba yor yo Yoruba 796 yor x x x x YUCHI Yuchi Nearly extinct 903 yuc x 26 Yugoslav 649 YUKI Yuki Extinct 922 yuk x

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TABLE I-1 Subcommittee Template: Comparison of Spoken Language Categories and Coding 264 Contra ISO 639-3 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-1 Reported in Kaiser Costa HRET NACHC NY Census Language Census Individual the Census Permanente Health Hospital Survey of Language Presbyterian Sutter Individual Individual ISO Language Other Names and a c d d f g h Namea Code languageb languageb languageb Nameb Additional Information 2000 Health Plan Plan Survey CHCs Line Use Hospitale SFGHe UW e Healthe YUMA Quechan Kechan 894 yum esu (Central) ess (Central Siberain) ynk (Naukan) ems (Pacific Gulf) ypk YUPIK (collective) YUPIK 805 ysr (Sirenic) x x YUROK Yurok YUROK; nearly extinct 827 yur x zap (macro Zapoteca with 47 subs zap Zapotec 971 x x Zia zia Zia 924 Zulu zul zul zu Zulu 792 x x x ZUNI zun zun Zuni 964 x Bravanese (name for Swahili use in part of Somalia 736 x Davawenyo Davaweno uncoded daw x Southern Kurdish Gorani language uncoded hac x Manegra uncoded x Brai (4 letter uncoded script code ISO written 15924) Braille x coded as Nonspeaking; speech English loss Declined, Refused uncoded x coded as American Sign Deaf; Hearing Impaired; English ase Language Non Hearing x x x x x x x x American Sign Language tactive x Multiple Sign 130 possible Language options Other Sign Language uncoded choices x x x Undetermined; Unable to Determine; Unknown uncoded und x x a U.S. Census Bureau. 2007. Census 2000 Summary File 2 - Technical documentation. Appendix G code lists. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Additional languages were added to this column based on the responses in columns on health plan, hospital, and community health center use. An asterisk indicates a language added to the Census 2000 list. b SIL International. 2009. ISO 639 Code Tables. http://sil.org/iso639-3/codes.asp?order=639_3&letter=a (accessed August 25, 2009). c Modern Language Association. 2009. All languages reported to the US Census in 2000. http://www.mla.org/map_data_langlist&mode=lang_tops (accessed May 26, 2009). d See Appendixes G and H on Kaiser Permanente and Contra Costa for information on their approaches to data collection and categorization. e Personal communications from Emilio Carrillo, New York Presbyterian Hospital, May 11, 2009; Alice Chen, San Francisco General Hospital, July 7, 2009; Maria Moreno and Traci Van, Sutter Health, July 22, 2009; Shiva Bidar-Sielaff, University of Wisconsin Health, May 11, 2009. f Hasnain-Wynia, R., J. Yonek, D. Pierce, R. Kang, and C. H. Greising. 2006. Hospital language services for patients with limited English proficiency: Results from a national survey . Chicago, IL: Health Research and Educational Trust (HRET)/AHA. g National Association of Community Health Centers. 2008. Serving patients with limited English proficiency: Results of a community health center survey . Bethesda, MD: National Association of Community Health Centers and National Health Law Program. h Language Line Service. 2009. List of languages by Language Line Serivces. http://www.languageline.com/page/languages/ (accessed June 12, 2009).