A Review of the NIOSH Roadmap for Research on Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongate Mineral Particles

Committee for the Review of the NIOSH Research Roadmap on Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongate Mineral Particles

Alan R. Nelson, Catharyn T. Liverman, Elizabeth A. Eide, Eileen Abt, Editors

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE AND NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
A Review of the NIOSH Roadmap for Research on Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongate Mineral Particles Committee for the Review of the NIOSH Research Roadmap on Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongate Mineral Particles Alan R. Nelson, Catharyn T. Liverman, Elizabeth A. Eide, Eileen Abt, Editors

OCR for page R1
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS • 500 Fifth Street, N.W. • Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was requested by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and supported by Award No. 211-2006-19152, T.O. #2, between the National Academy of Sciences and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The views presented in this publication are those of the editors and attributing authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-14015-7 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-14015-3 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624- 6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. For more information about the Institute of Medicine, visit the IOM home page at: www.iom.edu. Copyright 2009 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine) and National Research Council. 2009. Review of the NIOSH roadmap for research on asbestos fibers and other elongate mineral particles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

OCR for page R1
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
COMMITTEE FOR THE REVIEW OF THE NIOSH RESEARCH ROADMAP ON ASBESTOS FIBERS AND OTHER ELONGATE MINERAL PARTICLES ALAN R. NELSON (Chair), American College of Physicians, Fairfax, Virginia SARKIS G. AMPIAN, Ampian And Associates, Mount Airy, Maryland JOHN R. BALMES, University of California, San Francisco PATRICK N. BREYSSE, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland ROBERT D. GIBBONS, University of Illinois at Chicago TOM K. HEI, Columbia University Medical Center, New York KARIN O. HOAL, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado JOE L. MAUDERLY, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico GREGORY P. MEEKER, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center, Colorado ANDREA KIDD TAYLOR, Morgan State University, Baltimore, Maryland Consultant ERNEST E. McCONNELL, ToxPath, Inc., Raleigh, North Carolina Study Staff CATHY LIVERMAN, Study Director EILEEN ABT, Senior Program Officer ELIZABETH A. EIDE, Senior Program Officer FRANKLIN BRANCH, Research Associate (until July 2009) JUDY ESTEP, Program Associate ANDREW M. POPE, Board Director, Health Sciences Policy GREGORY H. SYMMES, Deputy Director, Division on Earth and Life Studies v

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its pub- lished report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets in- stitutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confi- dential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Caroline Baier-Anderson, Environmental Defense Fund Brad Black, Center for Asbestos Related Disease Peter Buseck, Arizona State University David C. Christiani, Harvard School of Public Health John Dement, Duke University Mickey Gunter, University of Idaho John G. Hadley, Owens Corning Bob Hamilton, Parker, Colorado S. Katharine Hammond, University of California, Berkeley Thomas Mathew, University of Maryland, Baltimore County Roger O. McClellan, Toxicology and Human Health Risk Analysis Brooke Mossman, University of Vermont Gunter Oberdorster, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry Laura Welch, CPWR—The Center for Construction Research and Training vii

OCR for page R1
viii REVIEWERS Haining Yang, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii Although the reviewers listed above have provided many construc- tive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the con- clusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Lonnie Bristow, Consultant, Walnut Creek, California, and John C. Bailar III, The University of Chicago, (emeritus). Appointed by the National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, they were respon- sible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

OCR for page R1
Preface The statement of task assigned to the committee for the study Review of the NIOSH Research Roadmap on Asbestos Fibers and Other Elon- gate Mineral Particles 1 asked five questions. In this report, the commit- tee answers each question with a qualified “yes” and submits a series of recommendations that are intended to help the users of the Roadmap suc- cessfully reach their destination and address the scientific challenges and ambiguities that have beset this area of research in the past. The commit- tee recognizes fully the technical complexity of the Roadmap and ac- knowledges the hard work of the staff of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in its development. The com- mittee’s report particularly notes and commends the extensive back- ground research that went into the section of the Roadmap entitled “Review of Current Issues.” The committee was tasked specifically with assessing the January 2009 Roadmap document, which describes research to examine the physical and chemical characteristics of elongate mineral particles that may potentially impact human health. While recognizing the strengths of the Roadmap, the committee also identified a number of areas for improvement that are described in this report. Much discussion focused on the mineralogical terminology, nomenclature, and glossary advanced in the Roadmap. In particular, the committee carefully consid- ered the use of the new term elongated mineral particles and concludes 1 The Roadmap was drafted in 2007 and entitled NIOSH Roadmap on Asbestos and Other Mineral Fibers; it was extensively revised in 2008 and early 2009 with the new title Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongated Mineral Particles: State of the Science and Roadmap for Research. It was this latter document (hereafter called the Roadmap) that the committee was tasked to review. ix

OCR for page R1
x PREFACE that this is a nontechnical term that should be used only to describe a broad group of respirable mineral particles of certain aspect ratios. Addi- tionally, the committee urges use of the adjective elongate rather than elongated in the purely descriptive use of this term. One of the recom- mendations asks NIOSH to ensure that mineralogical terminology and nomenclature in both the text and the glossary are supported by ac- knowledged mineralogical terminology sources. The committee makes a number of additional recommendations including a need for increased emphasis on relevant epidemiological research opportunities internation- ally and in the United States. The committee, in its discussions, repeatedly referenced the need for the Roadmap to be one portion of a broader strategic plan for NIOSH, other organizations, and federal agencies—a plan that might include a statement of purpose, consideration of available resources, interdiscipli- nary and interagency collaboration, prioritization, time lines, and ac- countability. This observation is offered with the understanding that broader strategic planning may already be an ongoing activity within NIOSH and the other relevant agencies. Finally, the committee acknowledges with gratitude the assistance of the National Academies staff in the preparation of this report, includ- ing the study director, Cathy Liverman; senior program officers, Eileen Abt and Elizabeth Eide; research associate, Franklin Branch; and pro- gram associate, Judy Estep. Alan R. Nelson, Chair Committee for the Review of the NIOSH Research Roadmap on Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongate Mineral Particles

OCR for page R1
Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 13 Complexities of the Issues, 15 References, 21 2 KEY COMPONENTS OF THE ROADMAP 23 Process of Developing the Roadmap, 24 A Broader Research Strategy, 25 Key Components of the NIOSH Roadmap, 28 References, 32 3 MAJOR SCIENTIFIC ISSUES: STATE OF THE SCIENCE AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS 33 Terminology and Nomenclature, 33 Mineral Characterization and Standardized Reference Minerals, 38 Toxicity Screening and Testing, 45 Experimental Design Issues, 55 Epidemiology, 56 Exposure Assessment, 62 Specific Comments, 67 References, 68 4 RECOMMENDATIONS AND NEXT STEPS 77 Findings, 77 Recommendations, 80 xi

OCR for page R1
xii CONTENTS Steps Toward a Research Strategy, 85 Reference, 86 APPENDIXES A Meeting Agendas 87 B Counting Strategies 93 C Experimental Design Strategies 109 D Biographical Sketches 115

OCR for page R1
Acronyms AFM atomic force microscopy AGI American Geological Institute ATF activating transcription factor ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry CAS Chemical Abstracts Service CNMNC Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature, and Classification (IMA) COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease CT computed tomography EBSD electron backscattered diffraction EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPMA electron probe microanalysis EXAFS extended X-ray absorption fine structure ICD International Classification of Diseases ILO International Labour Organization ILSI International Life Sciences Institute IMA International Mineralogical Association IOM Institute of Medicine MSHA Mine Safety and Health Administration NIEHS National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NRC National Research Council xiii

OCR for page R1
xiv ACRONYMS OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration PCM phase contrast microscopy PEL permissible exposure limit PET positron emission tomography PLM polarized light microscopy REL recommended exposure limit SEM scanning electron microscopy TEM transmission electron microscopy USBM U.S. Bureau of Mines XRD X-ray diffraction XRF X-ray fluorescence