• Short-term, emergency actions are not sufficient to remedy recurring food crises; instead, both short- and long-term investments in global food and agriculture systems are needed.

  • Mechanisms to help vulnerable populations cope with food price volatility and to prevent future shocks are required.

  • It is important to draw upon the expertise of governments, NGOs and civil society, the private sector, foundations, and the broad spectrum of actors in the international nutrition and agriculture sectors.

  • The roles of the multiple UN agencies that work to promote the food and nutrition security of vulnerable populations need to be clarified.

  • Fostering engagement with the private sector may yield new expertise and resources.

  • A stronger voice from indigenous NGOs is needed. Such local NGOs could benefit from capacity-building efforts to encourage ownership and political involvement.


Black, R., S. Morris, and J. Bryce. 2003. Where and why are 10 million children dying every year? Lancet 361(9376):2226-2234.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2006. The State of Food Insecurity in the World. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.

———. 2008. Number of Hungry People Rises to 963 Million. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.

———. 2009. 1.02 Billion People Hungry. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.

Renewing American Leadership in the Fight Against Global Hunger and Poverty: The Chicago Initiative on Global Agricultural Development. 2009. Chicago: The Chicago Council on Global Affairs.

The World Bank. 2009. Food Crisis: What The World Bank is Doing. Retrieved November 9, 2009, from http://www.worldbank.org/foodcrisis/bankinitiatives.htm.

UNICEF. 2008. The State of the World’s Children 2009: Maternal and Newborn Health. New York: United Nations Children’s Fund.

USAID. 2009 (unpublished). The Cycle of Malnutrition in Bangladesh.

von Grebmer, K., H. Fritschel, B. Nestorova, T. Olofinbiyi, R. Pandya-Lorch, and Y. Yohannes. 2008. The Challenge of Hunger: The 2008 Global Hunger Index. Bonn: Welthungerhilfe; Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute; Dublin: Concern Worldwide.

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