Mitigating the Nutritional Impacts of the Global Food Price Crisis

Workshop Summary

Elizabeth Haytmanek and Katherine McClure, Rapporteurs

Board on Global Health

Food and Nutrition Board

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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Mitigating the Nutritional Impacts of the Global Food Price Crisis Workshop Summary Elizabeth Haytmanek and Katherine McClure, Rapporteurs Board on Global Health Food and Nutrition Board

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This study was supported by Grant No. 51649 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, with additional support from the PepsiCo Foun- dation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publica- tion are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-14018-8 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-14018-8 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC, 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. For more information about the Institute of Medicine, visit the IOM home page at: www. iom.edu. Copyright 2010 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin. Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2010. Mitigating the Nutritional Impacts of the Global Food Price Crisis: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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“Knowing is not enough; we must apply. Willing is not enough; we must do.” — Goethe Advising the Nation. Improving Health.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examina - tion of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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PLANNING COMMITTEE ON MITIGATING THE NUTRITIONAL IMPACTS OF THE GLOBAL FOOD PRICE CRISIS1 REYNALDO MARTORELL (Chair), Robert W. Woodruff Professor, International Nutrition; Senior Advisor, Global Health Institute, Hubert Department of Global Health, The Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia HANS HERREN, President, Millennium Institute, Arlington, Virginia ISATOU JALLOW, Chief, Women, Children and Gender Policy, UN World Food Program, Rome, Italy RUTH K. ONIANG’O, Executive Director, Rural Outreach Program, Nairobi, Kenya PER PINSTRUP-ANDERSEN, H.E. Babcock Professor of Food, Nutrition and Public Policy, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York JUAN A. RIVERA, Director, Center for Research in Nutrition and Health, National Institute of Public Health, Mexico; Professor, Nutrition, School of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico RICARDO UAUY, Professor, Nutrition and Pediatrics, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile KEITH P. WEST, JR., Professor, International Nutrition, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland Study Staff ELIZABETH HAYTMANEK, Study Director KATHERINE McCLURE, Senior Program Associate GUI LIU, Senior Program Assistant MEGAN PEREZ, Intern JULIE WILTSHIRE, Financial Officer PATRICK KELLEY, Director, Board on Global Health LINDA D. MEYERS, Director, Food and Nutrition Board 1 IOM planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying top - ics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. The planning committee’s role was limited to planning the workshop, and the workshop summary has been prepared by the workshop rapporteurs as a factual summary of what occurred at the workshop. 

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Reviewers T his report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with proce- dures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Com- mittee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectiv- ity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Eileen Kennedy, Tufts University Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy Vivica Kraak, Save the Children Per Pinstrup-Andersen, Cornell University Meera Shekar, The World Bank Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Hugh Tilson, Uni- versity of North Carolina, Gillings School of Global Public Health. Appointed by the Institute of Medicine, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with insti - tutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authors and the institution. ii

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Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 7 Workshop Background, 8 Welcome from the Sponsor, 9 Ellen Piwoz References, 12 2 THE DUAL CRISES: TANDEM THREATS TO NUTRITION 13 The Recent and Current Food Price Crisis and Future Perspectives, 14 Per Pinstrup-Andersen The Current Global Economic Crisis and Future Perspectives, 21 Hans Timmer Discussion, 26 References, 30 3 IMPACTS ON NUTRITION 31 Conceptual Presentation on Pathways to Nutritional Impact, 31 Ricardo Uauy Existing Evidence of Nutritional Impacts, 38 Francesco Branca Are the Urban Poor Particularly Vulnerable?, 43 Marie Ruel Discussion, 46 References, 48 ix

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x CONTENTS 4 RESPONDING TO THE CRISES AT THE COUNTRY LEVEL 49 The Role of Ministries in Responding to the Crises at the Country Level, 49 Ruth Oniang’o Review of National Responses to the Food Crisis, 51 Hafez Ghanem The Case of Mexico, 55 Graciela Teruel Belismelis The Global Food Price Crisis and Food Development Strategy in China, 57 Fangquan Mei Food Prices, Consumption, and Nutrition in Ethiopia: Implications of Recent Price Shocks, 60 Paul Dorosh Bangladesh Case Study, 66 Josephine Iziku Ippe Discussion, 71 References, 72 5 A ROLE FOR NUTRITION SURVEILLANCE IN ADDRESSING THE GLOBAL FOOD CRISIS 75 Nutrition Surveillance in Relation to the Food Price and Economic Crises, 76 John Mason Insights from 25 Years of Helen Keller International’s Nutrition Surveillance in Bangladesh and Indonesia, 82 Andrew Thorne-Lyman Famine Early Warning Systems Network, Nutrition Surveillance, and Early Warning, 85 Chris Hillbruner Listening Posts Project: A Concept for a Real-Time Surveillance System Nested Within a Program, 88 Anna Taylor Food Security, Nutrition Monitoring, and the Global Food Price Crisis: USAID/FFP Title II Programs, 91 Ellen Mathys Discussion, 95 References, 96 6 THE GLOBAL RESPONSE TO THE CRISES 99 Introduction to the Global Nutrition Landscape, 99 Ruth Leine The Role and Capacity of Foundations in Responding to the Crises, 106 Haddis Tadesse

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xi CONTENTS The Role of Food Companies in Responding to the Crises, 110 Derek Yach The Advocacy Role of Civil Society Organizations in Responding to the Economic and Food Price Crises, 114 Asma Lateef The Role and Capacity of Civil Society in Responding to the Crises, 116 Tom Arnold Mitigating the Nutritional Impact of the Global Food Security Crisis: The Role and Capacity of UN Agencies in Response to the Crisis, 118 Daid Nabarro The Role and Capacity of UNICEF in Responding to the Crises, 123 Werner Schultink The Role and Capacity of the WFP in Responding to the Crises, 125 Martin Bloem The Role and Capacity of FAO in Responding to the Crises, 127 Hafez Ghanem The Role and Capacity of WHO in Responding to the Crises, 129 Francesco Branca Discussion, 131 References, 133 7 U.S. POLICY IN FOOD AND NUTRITION 135 The Roadmap to End Global Hunger, 135 James McGoern USAID’s Response to the Food Crisis and Preventing Malnutrition for the Future, 140 Michael Zeilinger Food Security in the 21st Century, 145 Nina Fedoroff USDA’s Response to the Crises and Future Perspectives, 147 Raji Shah Renewing American Leadership in the Fight Against Global Hunger and Poverty, 151 Catherine Bertini and Dan Glickman Discussion, 155 Workshop Closing Remarks, 156 Reynaldo Martorell References, 158 APPENDIXES A Workshop Agenda 159 B Speaker Biographies 165 C Workshop Registrants 183

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