1. International cooperation. The government, under White House leadership, should pursue international cooperation in space proactively as a means to advance U.S. strategic leadership and meet national and mutual international goals by

    1. Expanding international partnerships in studies of global change;

    2. Leading an effort in which the United States and other major space-faring nations cooperate to develop rules for a robust space operating regime that ensures that space becomes a more productive global commons for science, commerce, and other activities;

    3. Rationalizing export controls so as to ensure ongoing prevention of inappropriate transfer of sensitive technologies to adversaries while eliminating barriers to international cooperation and commerce that do not contribute effectively to national security;

    4. Expanding international partnerships in the use of the International Space Station (ISS);

    5. Continuing international cooperation in scientific research and human space exploration;

    6. Engaging the nations of the developing world in educating and training their citizens to take advantage of space technology for sustainable development; and

    7. Supporting the interchange of international scholars and students.

  1. Human spaceflight. NASA should be on the leading edge of actively pursuing human spaceflight, to extend the human experience into new frontiers, challenge technology, bring global prestige, and excite the public’s imagination. These goals should be accomplished by

    1. Setting challenging objectives that advance the frontier, scientific and technological understanding, and the state of the art;

    2. Establishing clear goals for each step in a sequence of human space-flight missions beyond low Earth orbit that will develop techniques and hardware that can be used in a next step further outward;

    3. Focusing use of the ISS on advancing capabilities for human space exploration;

    4. Using human spaceflight to enhance the U.S. soft power leadership by inviting emerging economic powers to join with us in human spaceflight adventures.

National space policy too often has been implemented in a stovepipe fashion that makes it difficult to recognize connections between space activities and pressing national challenges. Often, senior policy makers with broad portfolios have not been able to take the time to consider the space program in the broader national context. Rather, policies have been translated into programs by setting budget levels and then expecting agencies to manage to those budgets. The committee

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