two space walks. He was a member of the NRC Panel on Earth Science Applications and Societal Needs of the Survey Steering Committee for Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future.


JAMES B. ARMOR, JR., retired as major general from the USAF in 2008. His last position was as director of the National Security Space Office (NSSO) in the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO). There he led efforts to align and architect all military and intelligence space activities, and to coordinate with those of civil space. He jointly coordinated with the Department of Commerce to understand the adverse impact of U.S. import and export regulations on the space industrial base. Prior to the NSSO position, he served as director of Signals Intelligence Acquisition and Operations at NRO, as director of the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System, and he was a NASA astronaut who participated in a number of military missions carried by the space shuttle. Major General Armor is an elected associate fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). He is currently founder and CEO of the Armor Group, LLC, a space consulting firm.


WANDA M. AUSTIN is the president and CEO of the Aerospace Corporation. She previously served as a senior vice president of the company’s National Systems Group, which supports the national security space and intelligence community in the acquisition, launch, and orbital operation of advanced technology space systems and their ground data stations. She was elected a corporate officer of the company in 2001 and served as the senior vice president of the Engineering and Technology Group. She is internationally recognized for her work in satellite and payload system acquisition, systems engineering, and system simulation. Her numerous awards include the National Intelligence Medallion, the Air Force Meritorious Civilian Service Medal for her service on the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, and the 2009 Black Engineer of the Year award. She is a member of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), a fellow of the AIAA, and a member of the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA). She has served on the NASA Advisory Council, the NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP), and NRC Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable.


DAVID BALTIMORE is the Robert Andrews Millikan Professor of Biology at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). His research interests focus on virology, immunology, cancer, and AIDS. He was awarded a 1975 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Dr. Baltimore served as president of Caltech from 1997 to 2006 and as president of Rockefeller University from 1990 to 1991. He was president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) in 2007. Dr. Baltimore is a member of numerous organizations and boards, including Amgen, Inc., board of directors; BB Biotech AG board of directors; Jackson Laboratory board of directors; and, previously, chair of the National Institutes of



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