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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study is based on work supported by Contract NNH05CC16C between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-14051-5

International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-14051-X

Cover: Cover design by Tim Warchocki. Clockwise from top left: Artist’s rendering of a BioSuit™ emphasizes how it aids maneuverability, courtesy of Professor Dava Newman, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Artist’s concept of a swarm of mass driver deflection spacecraft approaching a target asteroid, courtesy of SpaceWorks Engineering, Inc. (SEI), artwork by Nathan Phail-Liff; Artist’s concept of a Directed Aerial Robot Explorer balloon platform on Mars, courtesy of Global Aerospace Corporation (K. Nock), the European Space Agency/Deutsches Zentrum für Luft-und Raumfahrt e.V./Freie Universität Berlin (G. Neukum), and A. Pankine; Artist’s concept of the New Worlds Observatory starshield, courtesy of NASA and Northrop Grumman Company; Three-dimensional rendering of Earth, courtesy of Martin Kornmesser, Hubble European Space Agency Information Centre.

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