and greenhouse gases, 90

RD&D, 90

supply of fuel from, 90-91

transport and distribution challenges, 90

Biodiesel, 37, 62 n.17, 75, 89

Biofuels.

See also Biochemical conversion;

Biomass;

Biomass-to-liquid fuels;

Cellulosic ethanol;

Coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuels;

Corn ethanol

advanced, 66

algal biodiesel, 75, 89

biobutanol, 89

from CO2 feedstocks, 74-75

consumption, 21, 37

hydrocarbon fuels from biomass, 3-4

potential of, 66, 73

R&D, 74-75

Biomass

carbon issues, 72

co-fed coal, see Coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuel

consumption, 17, 18

cost of energy from, 58

on CRP lands, 89

electricity generation, see Biopower

food/feed crop displacement, 89

greenhouse gas emissions, 69, 72

incentives for growers, 89-90

industrial use, 17

non-electricity applications, 32

supply, 32, 37, 66, 77, 89-90

sustainable production, 89

Biomass-to-liquid fuels.

See also Biochemical conversion

costs, 67, 91

greenhouse gas emissions, 71, 91

supply of fuel from, 37

thermochemical conversion, 91

Biopower

build time, 128

capacity, 128

carbon balance, 69

cost estimates, 57, 58, 126

environmental impacts, 101

feedstock supply, 32

landfill gas fuel, 97

municipal solid waste fuel, 89, 97

sources, 97

supply of electricity, 36, 51

technology description, 97

wood-based, 97

Biotechnology, 4

Brazil, 20

Buildings sector.

See also Appliances;

Commercial;

Residential

advanced technologies, 83-84

barriers to improving energy efficiency, 77

capital investment needs, 83

combined heat and power production, 83

conservation supply curves, 40, 82, 83

consumption of energy, 2, 14, 83

cooling and heating systems, 14, 41, 47, 83

cost-effectiveness of improvements, 41

cost of conserved energy, 45-46, 47, 48-49

drivers for improving, 84

electricity consumption, 41, 42, 47

energy codes, 38-39 n.1, 40, 50, 88

energy efficiency, 2, 38-39 n.1, 40-41, 42, 47-49, 87-88

findings, 2, 47-49

integrated (whole-building) approaches, 84

lighting, 47, 50, 83, 84

natural gas consumption, 14, 15, 17, 24, 37, 41, 48-49

payback period for technologies, 82

petroleum consumption, 17, 24

potential energy savings, 47-49, 50, 83

projected energy demand, 41, 42

regulatory policies, 87

retail price of energy, 47-48, 83

windows, 84

Bush (George H.W.), administration, 26

Bush (George W.), administration, 26

Business-as-usual reference case, xi, 36

alternative transportation fuels, 93-94

CO2 emissions, 2, 11

deployment of technologies, 93-94

energy efficiency improvement, 2

energy supply and consumption, 12, 36

fossil fuels, 11

industrial sector, 2

transportation sector, 2



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