FIGURE 2.12 Estimates of the potential liquid fuel supply from conversion of coal to liquid fuels in 2020 and 2035 (relative to 2007) compared to total liquid fuel consumption. The current (2007) U.S. liquid fuel consumption, in barrels of oil, for transportation is shown on the left (in green). To estimate supply, an accelerated deployment of technologies as described in Part 2 of this report is assumed for coal-to-liquid fuel (CTL) with carbon capture and storage (CCS). It is assumed that CTL without CCS would not be deployed. There is uncertainty associated with the technical potential for CCS. CCS technologies will need to be successfully demonstrated over the next decade if they are to be used for liquid fuel production in 2035. The volume of liquid fuel estimated to be available in 2020 and 2035 depends primarily on the rate of plant deployment. Potential liquid fuel supplies are estimated individually for each technology, and estimates do not account for future fuel demand or competition among supply sources. Potential supplies are expressed in barrels of gasoline equivalent. One barrel of oil produces about 0.85 barrels of gasoline equivalent of gasoline and diesel. All values have been rounded to two significant figures.
Sources: Data from Energy Information Administration (2008) and Chapter 5 in Part 2 of this report.
liquid fuels; Figure 2.13). Cellulosic ethanol is in the early stages of demonstration, but coal-to-liquid fuels are being commercially produced today (but without geologic storage of CO2) outside the United States. Coal-to-liquid fuels technologies could be deployed domestically, but these technologies would have to be integrated with CCS to produce fuels with CO2 emissions similar to or less than those from petroleum-based fuels.