rate of building cellulosic ethanol plants would exceed that of building corn grain ethanol plants by 100 percent, up to 0.5 million bbl/d of gasoline-equivalent cellulosic ethanol (1 barrel of oil produces about 0.85 barrel of gasoline equivalent) could be added to the fuels portfolio by 2020. By 2035, up to 1.7 million bbl/d of gasoline equivalent could be produced in this manner, resulting in about a 20 percent reduction in oil used for LDVs at current consumption levels.

Thermochemical Conversion

Without geologic CO2 storage, technologies for the indirect liquefaction of coal to transportation fuels could be commercially deployable today, but life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions would be more than twice the CO2 emissions of petroleum-based fuels. Requiring geologic CO2 storage with these processes would have a relatively small impact on engineering costs and efficiency. However, the viability of geologic CO2 storage has yet to be adequately demonstrated on a large scale in the United States, and unanticipated costs could occur. Although enhanced oil recovery could present an opportunity for early demonstrations of carbon capture and storage (CCS), that storage would be small compared with the large amounts of CO2 that would be captured if coal-to-liquid fuels production became widely deployed, potentially in the gigatonne-per-year range.

Liquid fuels produced from thermochemical plants that use only biomass feedstock are more costly than fuels produced from coal, but biomass-derived fuels can have life-cycle CO2 emissions that are near zero without geologic CO2 storage or highly negative emissions with geologic CO2 storage. To make such fuels competitive, the economic incentive for reducing CO2 emissions has to be sufficiently high.

When biomass and coal are co-fed in thermochemical conversion to produce liquid fuels, the process allows a larger scale of operation and lower capital costs per unit of capacity than would be possible with biomass alone. If 500 million dry tonnes of biomass were combined with coal (60 percent coal and 40 percent biomass on an energy basis), production of 60 billion gallons of gasoline-equivalent fuels per year (4 million bbl/d) would be technically feasible. That amount of fuel represents about 45 percent of the current volume (140 billion gal/yr or 9 million bbl/d) of liquid fuel used annually in the United States for LDVs. Moreover, when biomass and coal are co-fed, the overall life-cycle CO2 emissions are reduced because the CO2 emissions from coal are countered by the CO2 uptake by biomass during its growth. Combined coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuels without geologic



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