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Attachment IV FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership HISTORY AND BACKGROUND The FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership is a research and development (R&D) program designed to enable long-range, significant changes in automobiles and their energy supply systems for the purpose of obtaining major societal benefits, such as reduced petroleum consumption and reduced levels of harmful gaseous emissions to the atmosphere. Research projects sponsored at government laboratories, universities, and private companies are chosen and monitored by joint industry/government technical teams. This structure helps focus expenditures on research to support projects that are relevant to the long-range, pre-competitive research needs envisioned by automotive, energy, and, now, utility companies, and help to meet the nation’s societal needs as articulated by the government. The basic structure has evolved and has improved over almost 15 years and has proven to be an excellent mechanism for achieving progress (NRC, 2000, 2001, 2005, 2008a). The DOE has been involved for about 30 years in R&D programs related to advanced vehicular technologies and alternative transportation fuels. During the 1990s, much of this R&D was conducted as part of the Partnership for a New Generation of V ehicles (PNGV) program, which was formed between the federal government and the auto industry’s USCAR.1 Building on the PNGV program, in January 2002 the Secretary of Energy and executives of DaimlerChrysler, Ford, and General Motors announced a new government-industry partnership between DOE and USCAR called FreedomCAR, with CAR standing for Cooperative Automotive Research. In September 2003, FreedomCAR was expanded to include the five large energy companies mentioned previously to address issues related to the supporting fuel infrastructure. The expanded 2 partnership is called the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership (DOE, 2006). During the 1 USCAR, which predated the formation of PNGV , was established by Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation. Its purpose was to support intercompany, precompetitive cooperation that would reduce the cost of redundant R&D, especially in areas mandated by government regulation, and make the U.S. industry more competitive with international companies. Chrysler Corporation merged with Daimler Benz in 1998 to form DaimlerChrysler. In 2007, DaimlerChrysler divested from a major interest in the Chrysler Group and Chrysler LLC was formed; DaimlerChrysler was renamed Daimler AG. The PNGV sought to significantly improve the nation’s competitiveness in the manufacture of future generations of vehicles, to implement commercially viable innovations emanating from ongoing research on conventional vehicles, and to develop vehicles that achieve up to three times the fuel efficiency of comparable 1994 family sedans (NRC, 2001; PNGV , 1995; The White House, 1993). 2 In February 2003, before the announcement of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership, the President announced the FreedomCAR and Hydrogen Fuel Initiative to develop technologies for (1) fuel efficient motor vehicles and light trucks, (2) cleaner fuels, (3) improved energy efficiency, and (4) the hydrogen production and nationwide distribution infrastructure needed for vehicle and stationary power plants, to fuel both hydrogen ICEs and fuel cells (DOE, 2004a). The expansion of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership to include the energy sector after the announcement of the initiative also supports the goal of the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative. 19
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time period since the last NRC phase 2 review (NRC, 2008a), the Partnership has expanded to include the utility industry (as noted previously, DTE Energy and Southern California Edison) (DOE, 2009a). These new partners were added to address issues associated with use of the electric transmission and distribution systems that would accompany commercial deployment of PHEVs and BEVs. The Partnership addresses the development of advanced technologies for all light- duty passenger vehicles. It also addresses technologies for hydrogen production, distribution, dispensing, and storage. Funding for research, development, and demonstration activities goes to the national laboratories, private companies, and universities. Especially in the case of development activities, projects costs are often shared between the private sector and the federal government. The Partnership plays an important role in the planning, pursuit, and assessment of high-risk R&D for many of the needed vehicle and fuel technologies, and federal funds allow much of this work to move forward. It also serves as a communication mechanism for the interested players, including government, the national laboratories, private industry, universities, the public, and others. This structure recognizes both the long-range, high-risk research needs envisioned by automotive and energy companies, and the nation’s societal needs related to automotive vehicles and fuels, as articulated by government, in defining the appropriate goals and selecting the best way of achieving them. This capability is seen by the committee as a major strength of the Partnership that should be retained even if other changes are made. CURRENT STRUCTURE OF THE PARTNERSHIP The administrative structure of the Partnership includes the Executive Steering Group, which oversees the Joint Operations Group, Fuels Operations Group, FreedomCAR Operations Group, and the newly added Utility Operations Group. The DOE managers and respective energy company, automotive companies (OEMs), and utility directors of these groups oversee technical teams that are responsible for developing R&D plans and roadmaps, reviewing research results, and evaluating technical progress toward meeting research goals. Realizing that there will be a portfolio of energy carriers (fuels) and mobility technologies necessary to move forward, and to address the technical challenges associated with the different fuel/vehicle technology pathways, the Partnership has established a technical roadmap with specific, quantitative 2010 and 2015 technology and cost goals in eight areas: • Internal combustion engines (both petroleum and hydrogen fueled), • Fuel cell power systems, • Fuel cells, • Hydrogen storage systems, • Energy storage systems for hybrid vehicles, • Hydrogen production and delivery systems, • Electric propulsion systems, and • Materials for lightweight vehicles. 20
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It is within this structure that the Partnership sets priorities, determines technical targets and milestones, and performs the research attempting to achieve those targets. Regular reviews, both internal and external, are conducted to receive feedback and critiques of individual and group projects. 21
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