3
The VIGRE Program

This chapter describes the original structure and evolution of the Grants for Vertical Integration of Research and Education in the Mathematical Sciences (VIGRE) program leading to the committee conclusions and recommendations found in Chapter 6. All of the major challenges for the mathematical sciences recounted in Chapter 2 were heard by the National Science Foundation (NSF). In September 1997 Donald Lewis, then director of the Division of Mathematical Sciences (DMS) at NSF, wrote a “Dear Colleague” letter to the mathematical sciences community introducing and justifying the VIGRE program. The letter presented the background that follows.1

Both the David Report (NRC, 1984) and the Douglas Report (NRC, 1992) recommended that DMS at NSF increase support for graduate students and postdoctoral trainees in the mathematical sciences. In addition, these reports recommended that more DMS trainee funding should be done through departmental infrastructure grants than through individual research grants and that this training should be broader and accomplished in less time than it was taking. In 1994 DMS started the Group Infrastructure Grant (GIG) program to provide infrastructure support for departments in the mathematical sciences. The proposals received focused primarily on funding for graduate students and postdoctoral support and on innovative ways to improve graduate programs.

During the previous decade several other factors had come into play. The average time to degree for PhDs in the mathematical sciences had risen from 4 to 7 years,2 doctoral programs had become more narrowly focused on producing academicians (and students were less well prepared for careers in industry), and the number of U.S. graduate students had fallen dramatically. Concerns had also been voiced indicating that the quality of U.S.-trained undergraduates was decreasing and that problems in kindergarten through grade 12 (K-12) education required a reexamination of the education of K-12

1

“Dear Colleague” letter, September 10, 1997, from Donald Lewis, Director, Division of Mathematical Sciences, National Science Foundation, to the mathematical sciences community (hereafter cited as “Dear Colleague” letter, September 10, 1997). Available at http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/1997/nsf97170/nsf97170.htm. Accessed July 6, 2009.

2

This is different from the data reported in Table 2-6 in Chapter 2 of the present report. The discrepancy may reflect a different definition of median time to degree.



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3 The VIGRE Program This chapter describes the original structure and evolution of the Grants for Vertical Integration of Research and Education in the Mathematical Sciences (VIGRE) program leading to the committee conclusions and recommendations found in Chapter 6. All of the major challenges for the mathematical sciences recounted in Chapter 2 were heard by the National Science Foundation (NSF). In September 1997 Donald Lewis, then director of the Division of Mathematical Sciences (DMS) at NSF, wrote a “Dear Colleague” letter to the mathematical sciences community introducing and justifying the VIGRE program. The letter presented the background that follows.1 Both the David Report (NRC, 1984) and the Douglas Report (NRC, 1992) recommended that DMS at NSF increase support for graduate students and postdoctoral trainees in the mathematical sciences. In addition, these reports recommended that more DMS trainee funding should be done through depart- mental infrastructure grants than through individual research grants and that this training should be broader and accomplished in less time than it was taking. In 1994 DMS started the Group Infrastructure Grant (GIG) program to provide infrastructure support for departments in the mathematical sciences. The proposals received focused primarily on funding for graduate students and postdoctoral support and on innovative ways to improve graduate programs. During the previous decade several other factors had come into play. The average time to degree for PhDs in the mathematical sciences had risen from 4 to 7 years,2 doctoral programs had become more narrowly focused on producing academicians (and students were less well prepared for careers in industry), and the number of U.S. graduate students had fallen dramatically. Concerns had also been voiced indicating that the quality of U.S.-trained undergraduates was decreasing and that problems in kindergarten through grade 12 (K-12) education required a reexamination of the education of K-12 1 “Dear Colleague” letter, September 10, 1997, from Donald Lewis, Director, Division of Mathematical Sciences, National Science Foundation, to the mathematical sciences community (hereafter cited as “Dear Colleague” letter, September 10, 1997). Available at http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/1997/nsf97170/nsf97170.htm. Accessed July 6, 2009. 2 This is different from the data reported in Table 2-6 in Chapter 2 of the present report. The discrepancy may reflect a different definition of median time to degree. 

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6 EVALUATION OF NSF’S VIGRE PROGRAM teachers. During this period, NSF Director Neal Lane was promoting the concept of integration of research and education. Given these facts, DMS, with the advice of a DMS Special Emphasis Panel (SEP),3 decided to replace the GIG program with the Grants for Vertical Integration of Research and Education in the Mathematical Sciences—VIGRE—program. The report of the SEP stated that this program could “achieve a change in the culture in a department” (NSF, 1997) and that • The funding should enable departments to carry out innovative educational programs at all levels that were not possible with their current resources; • The duration of awards should be 3 to 5 years (a 5-year period was recommended) and, if possible, should be renewable; and • Every proposal must include components on undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral education and programs to increase the participation of underrepresented groups. The SEP report (NSF, 1977) went on to recommend that VIGRE proposals should include compo - nents addressing the improvement of research, mentoring, and communication skills at all trainee levels and that an integration of faculty and students into a “community of scholars” be achieved. Moreover, it suggested that the average time to PhD degree should be reduced to 5 years, that undergraduates should be exposed to a breadth of mathematical sciences and problem solving, that graduate students should receive supervision in teaching and seminar presentation, and that postdoctoral training should be flexible and should include the possibility of interdisciplinary research. The SEP also suggested that optional outreach programs—such as collaboration with industry and the Department of Energy’s national labo - ratories, K-12 teacher enhancement, and the development of K-12 instructional material—should be viewed positively. As detailed in the letter from Donald Lewis, the SEP was provided, at the request of its chair, with “a draft description of a program named VIGRE . . . as a means of focusing the panel’s discussions.” 4 The SEP report opens by saying, “The panel strongly endorsed the concept of vertical integration; that is, constructing undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral programs to be mutually supportive.” Overall, “the funding provided by these grants should enable departments to carry out innovative educational programs at all levels not possible through present departmental resources. The panel sees this as a pro - gram that can achieve a change of culture in a department, one that results in broadening opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students both through innovative curriculum development and research experiences” (NSF, 1997). The SEP report recommended that the VIGRE program have undergraduate, graduate, postdoctoral, and optional curriculum development and outreach components tied together by vertical integration and supported by active recruitment of women and underrepresented minorities. The objectives for the undergraduate component were “preparing mathematical science majors for a wider variety of career opportunities, improving communication skills of mathematics students, and increasing the number of students who major in the mathematical sciences” (ibid.). For the graduate traineeships foreseen in the program, they would “provide a mechanism for broadening graduate education, shortening the average 3 The SEP was chaired by Morton Lowengrub, then at Indiana University. The other members were Mary Ellen Bock (Purdue University), John Garnett (University of California at Los Angeles), Tom Gerig (North Carolina State University), Philip Hanlon (University of Michigan), Raymond Johnson (University of Maryland), Nancy Kopell (Boston University), Calvin Moore (University of California at Berkeley), Tinsley Oden (University of Texas, Austin), Peter Sarnak (Princeton University), and Shmuel Winograd (IBM). 4 “Dear Colleague” letter, September 10, 1997.

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 THE VIGRE PROGRAM time to doctoral degree, improving communication skills and improving opportunities for employment” (ibid.). The program for postdoctoral fellows “should be designed to produce professionals ready to begin an academic career. At the conclusion of the postdoctoral program, fellows should have developed an independent research program, developed teaching skills at various program levels, and begun to develop a broad perspective of their field” (ibid.). While the emphasis was on postdoctoral fellows who would become academicians, “industrial experience involving practical problem solving or interdisciplinary research involving the integration of other disciplines into the fellows’ research may provide invaluable experience for an academic career” (ibid.). The optional curriculum development component should “mesh with the overall research and educational goals of the project and could include efforts of junior members of the project team” and might involve “areas that are not part of the traditional curriculum, as in interdisciplinary subjects” (ibid.). The optional outreach component would involve “outreach to industry, national laboratories, other academic areas and K-12 education. . . . We encourage creative new models of collaborations with industry, national laboratory and academic partners” (ibid.). EVOLVING GOALS OF THE VIGRE PROGRAM This section examines the goals of the VIGRE program as elucidated in NSF’s requests for propos - als (RFPs). The goals have evolved over the lifetime of the program, although with consistent themes. The original RFP in 1998 stated the following: The goals of the Grants for Vertical Integration of Research and Education in the Mathematical Sciences (VIGRE) program are: (1) to prepare undergraduate students, graduate students and postdoctoral fellows for a broad range of opportunities available to individuals with training in the mathematical sciences; and (2) to encourage departments in the mathematical sciences to consider a spectrum of education activities and their integration with research.5 In 1999, the following focus was added to the second goal: “ . . . with particular attention to the interaction of scholars across boundaries of academic age and departmental standing.” 6 In 2000, the phrase “consider a spectrum of” in the second goal was replaced with the more emphatic “to initiate or improve.”7 This all culminated in the 2001 RFP: The goals of VIGRE are: (1) to prepare undergraduate students, graduate students, and postdoctoral fellows for the broad range of opportunities available to individuals with training in the mathematical sciences; and (2) to encourage departments in the mathematical sciences to initiate or improve education activities that lend themselves to integration with research, especially activities that promote the interac - tion of scholars across boundaries of academic age and departmental standing. 8 5 From the first program solicitation: “Grants for Vertical Integration of Research and Education in the Mathematical Sciences (VIGRE),” NSF 97-155, available at http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/1997/nsf97155/nsf97155.htm. Accessed June 1 2, 2009. 6 From the program solicitation: “Grants for Vertical Integration of Research and Education in the Mathematical Sciences (VIGRE),” available at http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/1999/nsf9916/nsf9916.pdf. Accessed June 29, 2009. 7 From the program solicitation: “Grants for Vertical Integration of Research and Education in the Mathematical Sciences (VIGRE),” available at http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2000/nsf0040/nsf0040.pdf. Accessed June 29, 2009. 8 From the program solicitation: “Grants for Vertical Integration of Research and Education in the Mathematical Sciences (VIGRE),” NSF 01-104, available at http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2001/nsf01104/nsf01104.pdf. Accessed June 29, 2009.

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 EVALUATION OF NSF’S VIGRE PROGRAM In 2002, the goals were restated as follows: The long-range goal of the VIGRE program is to increase the number of well-prepared U.S. citizens, nationals, and permanent residents who pursue careers in the mathematical sciences. A successful VIGRE project must: 1. integrate research with educational activities; 2. enhance interaction among undergraduates, graduate students, postdoctoral associates, and faculty members; 3. broaden the educational experiences of its students and postdoctoral associates to prepare them for a wide range of career opportunities; and 4. motivate more students to pursue an education in the mathematical sciences. With these goals in mind, each VIGRE proposal must present a coherent plan for the integration of: • a graduate traineeship program, • an undergraduate research experience program, and • a postdoctoral program.9 In 2003, the VIGRE program was subsumed within the larger grant competition, Enhancing the Mathematical Sciences Workforce in the 21st Century (EMSW21), the goals of which were described as follows in the 2003 RFP: The long-range goal of the EMSW21 program is to increase the number of U.S. citizens, nationals, and permanent residents who are well-prepared in the mathematical sciences and who pursue careers in the mathematical sciences and in other NSF-supported disciplines. EMSW21 builds on the VIGRE program and now includes a broadened VIGRE activity, an additional component for Research Training Groups (RTG) in the Mathematical Sciences and an additional component for Mentoring through Critical Transi - tion Points (MCTP) in the Mathematical Sciences.10 The EMSW21 activity included the VIGRE program, for projects “that involve the entire department and span the entire spectrum of educational levels from undergraduates through postdoctoral associ - ates; Research Training Groups (RTG) [which] support the training activities of a group of faculty who have a common research interest; [and] Mentoring through Critical Transition Points (MCTP) [which] involves a larger group of faculty but focuses on specified stages in the professional development of the trainees.”11 While the 2004 solicitation for the EMSW21 program included the same goals, the 2005 solicitation was altered to highlight the departmental nature of the award and the vertical integration: The long-range goal of the EMSW21 program is to increase the number of well-prepared U.S. citizens, nationals, and permanent residents who pursue careers in the mathematical sciences and in other NSF- supported disciplines, while broadening trainees’ background and perspective. A significant part of this goal is to directly increase the proportion and the absolute number of U.S. students at the EMSW21 sites who pursue graduate studies and complete advanced degrees in the mathematical sciences. A related goal of EMSW21 is based on the fact that the direct impact of EMSW21 funds cannot yield a substantial proportional increase in national workforce production; the funds are simply not of the order 9 From the program solicitation: “Grants for Vertical Integration of Research and Education in the Mathematical Sciences (VIGRE),” NSF 02-120, available at http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2002/nsf02120/nsf02120.pdf. Accessed June 29, 2009. 10 From the program solicitation: “Enhancing the Mathematical Sciences Workforce in the 21st Century (EMSW21),” NSF 03-575, available at http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2003/nsf03575/nsf03575.pdf. Accessed June 29, 2009. 11 Ibid.

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 THE VIGRE PROGRAM of magnitude to create such an infrastructure. Therefore, indirect impacts, in which EMSW21 can serve as a catalyst beyond the directly-supported students in its home departments and beyond the institutions receiving EMSW21 funds, are crucial as well. Practices and cultural changes that support direct and indirect impacts of this nature will be key strengths in an EMSW21 proposal. Such aspects include, but are not limited to, ideas for attracting strong U.S. students to careers in the mathematical sciences and seeing them through to completion of their studies, and/or evidence of success in doing so; and effective dissemination of best practices that can serve as a national model. 12 This committee concurs that these current goals of the EMSW21 program are important ones. The ideas of integrating research and education, increasing interaction among different levels of students and scholars, broadening the educational experiences of students with an eye toward increasing career opportunities, and motivating students to pursue an education in the mathematical sciences are all worthwhile objectives. The committee notes that while the goal of increasing the number of U.S. citizens and permanent residents is important, it believes that the VIGRE program should be broadened to include all students, including international students, studying in the mathematical sciences. It recognizes, however, that a decision to broaden the program in this way might be outside NSF’s control. Separating students accord- ing to whether they participate in the VIGRE program or not—to the extent that this is practical in a department—risks creating a tension that can reduce collegiality and interaction. Additionally, some international students will choose to remain in the United States, and their participation in the VIGRE program might encourage that choice. KEY COMPONENTS OF THE VIGRE PROGRAM Each VIGRE RFP has contained a lengthy description of what is expected of the individual depart - ments and of funded projects. A summary of the RFPs’ important passages and changes over the years are presented here. The 1998 RFP clearly sets out the notion at the heart of the program: vertical integration, which “refers to programs in which research and education are coupled and in which undergraduates, graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and faculty are mutually supportive.” According to that RFP: Every VIGRE proposal should have as its core a coherent plan for the vertical integration of: • a graduate traineeship program • a postdoctoral fellowship program • undergraduate and graduate curriculum review.13 Undergraduates were expected to have research experiences, which the RFP noted could take many forms, and which also “should include exposure to the many opportunities for careers in the mathematical sciences and the development of communication skills.”14 The graduate traineeships, according to the 1998 RFP, “are intended as a mechanism for: broadening graduate education; shortening the average time-to-degree for the doctorate; improving communication skills; and expanding career opportunities.”15 This is a very useful statement because it establishes four 12 From the program solicitation: “Enhancing the Mathematical Sciences Workforce in the 21st Century (EMSW21),” NSF 05-595, available at http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2005/nsf05595/nsf05595.pdf. Accessed June 29, 2009. 13 From the program solicitation: “Grants for Vertical Integration of Research and Education in the Mathematical Sciences (VIGRE),” NSF 97-155, available at http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/1197/nsf97155/nsf97155.htm. Accessed June 1 2, 2009. 14 Ibid. 15 Ibid.

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0 EVALUATION OF NSF’S VIGRE PROGRAM indicators of success for the program. Furthermore, “Departments are expected to utilize the trainee - ships to improve the quality, not the size, of the graduate program. In particular, the traineeships are not meant to increase the size of the graduate program by enabling departments to hire additional teaching assistants, nor are they meant to replace current university funding of fellowships or scholarships.” 16 In theory it should be possible to test at least whether or not this use of traineeships was violated, although it is more difficult to measure whether the quality of the graduate program improved. Finally, the 1998 RFP noted that, “For postdoctoral fellows, the goal of the program is to produce professionals ready to begin an academic career. . . . At the conclusion of the postdoctoral program, fellows should have developed an independent research program, teaching skills at various levels, a broader perspective of their field, and a comprehension of the responsibilities of the profession.” 17 Again, these are indicators that could be tested in theory. VIGRE proposals were also intended to include an undergraduate and graduate curriculum review for which DMS set out the following goals: The curriculum should prepare the students for a broader range of careers than has been the case in recent times and [for] the probable need to change careers over one’s working life. It should also emphasize discovery learning, especially in the undergraduate program, involve graduate students in research earlier, and develop analytic and communications skills. The preparation of future K-12 teachers in the math - ematical sciences is an important responsibility of mathematical sciences departments and might require the design of appropriate curriculum and courses.18 Finally, DMS strongly suggested that VIGRE proposals include either or both of two other components: curriculum/instructional materials development and/or outreach. The 1999 RFP is important for laying out the justification behind vertical integration: The intent of the VIGRE program is to promote the development of a diverse community of researchers and scholars whose members interact on an appreciably wider scale than is now commonly observed, breaking through long-standing barriers that have served to compartmentalize the scholarly activities of undergraduates, graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, junior faculty, and senior faculty. A community characterized by the kind of vertical integration just indicated would not only provide a setting conducive to more meaningful educational experiences for undergraduate and graduate students alike, but also be a stimulus to continuing professional development at the postdoctoral level and beyond. 19 That RFP also clarified that the undergraduate and graduate curriculum review should occur and should be underway, if not completed, by the time of the proposal submission. The curriculum goals favored by DMS are similar to those described in the 1998 RFP, although a few more elements were added in 1999: Recent trends within the mathematical sciences professions strongly suggest that a forward-looking curriculum should prepare students for a broader range of mathematically oriented careers than has traditionally been contemplated and for the probable need to change careers over the course of one’s working life. It should also emphasize inquiry-based learning, especially in the undergraduate program; 16 Ibid. 17 Ibid. 18 Ibid. 19 From the program solicitation: “Grants for Vertical Integration of Research and Education in the Mathematical Sciences (VIGRE),” NSF 99-16, available at http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/1999/nsf9916/nsf9916.pdf. Accessed June 29, 2009.

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 THE VIGRE PROGRAM involve graduate students in research earlier than is typical in current practice; and develop analytic, computational, and communication skills. Exposure to other disciplines in which mathematics plays a significant role would be a highly desirable element in such a curriculum. The preparation of future K-12 mathematics teachers has become another important responsibility of many mathematical sciences departments, yet the curriculum appropriate to this mission is often not in place. 20 As in the 1998 RFP, the main program components in 1999 were graduate traineeships, undergraduate research experience, and postdoctoral fellowships. In the 1999 RFP, the graduate traineeships are noted as the “centerpiece” of the program, and the length of the postdoctoral fellowship was shortened from 36 months to 31 months. The two optional components were maintained. The RFPs for 2000 through 2002 were similar in form to the 1999 RFP. One substantive change was that, beginning in 2002, the purpose of the postdoctoral fellowships changed: teaching skills were taken out and the ability to mentor was added. In 2003, as VIGRE was subsumed into the larger EMSW21 competition, the overview description changed: The focus of this [VIGRE] component is enhancing the educational experience of all students and postdoctoral associates in a department (or departments). Broad faculty commitment and a team approach to enhancing learning are necessary. A principal element of VIGRE activity is increasing the interaction among undergraduates, graduate students, postdoctoral associates, and faculty members, whether pair- wise or collectively. Integrating research and education for graduate students and postdoctoral associates, involving undergraduates in substantial learning by discovery, and developing a team approach are keys to successful VIGRE projects. These goals can be accomplished in many ways and proposers should develop creative approaches that suit their circumstances. The enhancement of educational experiences of all students should stem from an understanding of cur- rent patterns of student participation in the life of the department(s). All VIGRE proposals are required to include the outcome of a curriculum review and at least five years of data on past performance in attract - ing and retaining well-qualified U.S. citizens, nationals, and permanent residents as graduate students and postdoctoral associates in the mathematical sciences, including women and those from underrepresented groups. Those departments who have had previous VIGRE awards should present data through the period of the award. Departments can use this information to describe its capacity to host a VIGRE project that will create a significant improvement in the educational experiences of their students and postdoctoral associates. These data may also inform recruitment and retention plans and mechanisms for assessment of the project. In conjunction with NSF’s goal of a globally-oriented science and engineering workforce, possibilities for international interaction are now included among VIGRE options. VIGRE student and postdoctoral associates and their mentors may participate in international research and education collaborative activi - ties, including activities in other countries that are integrated into and benefit the overall VIGRE program at the institution. When incorporating this option in the program, organizers will need to give careful attention to the practical aspects of sending U.S. students abroad, including logistical arrangements, language and cultural issues, and administrative requirements and how effective mentoring will take place in the foreign host institution.21 Generally, the three main components of graduate traineeships, undergraduate research experience, and postdoctoral fellowships remained the same, although the postdoctoral fellowship reverted from 31 months to 36 months in length. The 2004 and 2005 RFPs were similar to the 2003 RFP. 20Ibid. 21From the program solicitation: “Enhancing the Mathematical Sciences Workforce in the 21st Century (EMSW21),” NSF 05-595, available at http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2005/nsf05595/nsf05595.pdf. Accessed June 29, 2009.

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 EVALUATION OF NSF’S VIGRE PROGRAM An important conclusion of the committee is that the notion of verticality as suggested by the VIGRE RFPs and as conceptualized by NSF is too all-encompassing and therefore too restrictive. By pushing for integration everywhere, it focuses attention on one portion of a spectrum of engagement and encouragement when more-targeted integration may also bring benefits. This topic is explored further in Chapter 6. STRUCTURE OF THE VIGRE PROGRAM The structure of the VIGRE program was set up to reflect the recommendations of the DMS’s Special Emphasis Panel (NSF, 1997). For instance, as noted in the 1998 RFP, proposals were to be for 5-year projects with budgets of up to $500,000 per year. Additionally, $100,000 per year could be requested for curriculum development and $100,000 per year could be requested for an outreach component. Initial awards would contain 3 years of funding, with an additional 2 years of funding possible on the success - ful completion of a noncompetitive review. Departments were to conduct undergraduate and graduate program reviews, emphasize discovery learning in the undergraduate curriculum, plan for improving the participation of women and under- represented groups, find ways to involve graduate students in research earlier in their careers, and develop the teaching skills of graduate and postdoctoral trainees. Departments were meant to increase the number of undergraduates majoring in the mathematical sciences; they were also to use graduate traineeships to increase the quality of student training, but increasing the number of graduate students was not an explicit goal. The VIGRE program for postdoctoral fellows was aimed at producing professionals ready to begin academic careers. Ten awards were expected in each of the first 2 years of the VIGRE program. As noted above, the 1999 RFP made more explicit that the VIGRE program’s goals included “increas[ing] the number of U.S. citizens, nationals, and permanent residents who receive training for and subsequently pursue careers in the mathematical sciences [and that] the centerpiece of each VIGRE proposal should be a program of graduate traineeships for PhD students.” 22 That RFP also said explicitly that “VIGRE is not intended to provide support for Master’s degree programs.” 23 The funding formula for VIGRE grants was also changed in that year. It stated that awards could be up to $1 million per year, although the expectation was to fund proposals at less than $500,000 per year. Supplements could be considered, but the $100,000 figure was dropped. In the 2000 RFP, some details were expanded on, particularly the required departmental curriculum review. In 2002 the statement that departmental VIGRE programs should “motivate more students to pursue an education in the mathematical sciences”24 was included. The discussion of the optional pro- grams also changed, with the RFP now stating: “It should be stressed that a department is expected to provide its own resources to cover costs for normal changes in its curriculum and upgrades in the standard infra-structural elements required for its instructional mission. The optional activities envisioned for a VIGRE proposal should involve significant changes, exhibit substantial originality, be highly portable, and be made nationally available.”25 In 2003 the DMS workforce program changed substantially with the introduction of the Research Training Groups in the Mathematical Sciences (RTGs) and Mentoring through Critical Transition Points 22 From the program solicitation: “Grants for Vertical Integration of Research and Education in the Mathematical Sciences (VIGRE),” NSF 99-16, available at http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/1999/nsf9916/nsf9916.pdf. Accessed June 29, 2009. 23 Ibid. 24 From the program solicitation: “Grants for Vertical Integration of Research and Education in the Mathematical Sciences (VIGRE),” NSF 02-120, available at http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2002/nsf02120/nsf02120.pdf. Accessed June 29, 2009. 25 Ibid.

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 THE VIGRE PROGRAM (MCTP) programs. These programs allowed for greater flexibility in the way that cultural changes within departments could be accomplished. The VIGRE program also changed; the proposals now had to include institutional commitments in two ways. Among the nine points describing a successful VIGRE proposal were (1) to “have an institutional commitment to furthering the plans and goals of the VIGRE project” and (2) “to have a post VIGRE plan.”26 It should be noted that the DMS funds targeted at workforce programs increased from $12 million to $18.5 million with the introduction of the new programs, but that the amount proposed to be spent on VIGRE grants decreased to $10 million. Following the introduction of the RTG and MCTP programs, the structure of the VIGRE grants has remained unchanged. GRANT DURATION In 1997, the SEP report recommended that “[t]he duration of an award should be three to five years and if possible the award should be renewable” (NSF, 1997). In fact, the award was granted for 5 years, conditional on a 3rd-year assessment, and several VIGRE awardees have received a second award. On the basis of its broad experience in research and education endeavors and from observing the rates of progress in the departments that have held VIGRE grants, the committee concludes that 5 years is not enough time for a department to accomplish the goals set out by DMS for the VIGRE program. It is not clear to the committee that a department can successfully put in place a range of initiatives that will be self-maintaining in the time currently allotted by a grant. Changing the culture of a department takes time. It appears to take about 1 year for a VIGRE program to get underway at an institution, so VIGRE awardees have about 4 years to work with students. And, as is noted below, sustaining the pro - grammatic components of VIGRE has proven difficult for departments. If departments cannot maintain the initiatives undertaken during their VIGRE grant beyond the life of the program, then 5-year grants mean that departments might be limited to directly influencing just four yearly classes of students, which does not provide enough momentum for change. AWARDEES TO DATE To date, 53 VIGRE awards have been made (see Table 3-1). Some awards involve one department at an institution and others involve multiple departments (e.g., the University of Washington award involves three departments). Some institutions have received more than one award: most often these involve a renewal (e.g., North Carolina State University’s award) or different departments at the same institution receiving different awards (e.g., University of California at Berkeley). In all, 51 unique depart- ments have received one or two awards at 40 different institutions. The committee examined data from 50 departments at 39 institutions. Louisiana State University’s award began after the committee had begun the project, as indicated in Table 3-1. 26From the program solicitation: “Enhancing the Mathematical Sciences Workforce in the 21st Century (EMSW21),” NSF 03-575, available at http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2003/nsf03575/nsf03575.pdf. Accessed June 29, 2009.

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 TABLE 3-1 VIGRE Awardees, 1999-2012, by Institution, Department, and Academic Grant Years May May May May May May May May May May May May May 1999- 2000- 2001- 2002- 2003- 2004- 2005- 2006- 2007- 2008- 2009- 2010- 2011- May May May May- May May May May May May May May May Institution Department 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Brown University Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Carnegie Mellon Statistics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th University Carnegie Mellon Mathematical Sciences, 1st 2nd 3rd University Statistics Columbia University Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Cornell University Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Duke University Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Georgia Tech Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Harvard University Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Indiana University Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Iowa State University Statistics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th New York University Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th North Carolina State Statistics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th University Ohio State University Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Pennsylvania State Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th University Princeton University Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Purdue University Mathematics, Statistics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Rensselaer Polytechnic Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Institute Rice University Mathematics, Statistics, 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Applied Mathematics Rutgers University Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd Stanford University Statistics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th State University of Mathematics, Applied 1st 2nd 3rd New York at Stony Mathematics and Brook Statistics Texas A&M University Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Tulane University Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th University of Arizona Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th University of California Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd at Berkeley

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University of California Statistics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th at Berkeley University of California Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th at Davis University of California Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th at Los Angeles University of Chicago Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th University of Colorado Applied Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th University of Georgia Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th University of Illinois at Mathematics, Statistics, 1st 2nd 3rd Chicago Computer Science University of Illinois at Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Urbana-Champaign University of Iowa Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th University of Maryland Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th University of Michigan Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th University of Texas Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th University of Utah Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th University of Mathematics, Applied 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Washington Mathematics, Statistics University of Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Wisconsin Yale University Mathematics 1st 2nd 3rd NOTE: Louisiana State University’s award is not shown because it was made after this study began. SOURCE: National Science Foundation. 

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