Appendix B
The Mathematical Sciences in the 1980s and 1990s

TABLE B-1 Federally Financed and Total Academic Research and Education Expenditures in Mathematics and Statistics, 1980-1998

Year

Federally Financed Academic R&D Expenditures (U.S. $)

Total Academic R&D Expenditures (U.S. $)

% Federal

1980

61,246

78,112

78

1981

67,780

87,112

78

1982

71,829

96,419

74

1983

76,518

106,408

72

1984

92,317

123,149

75

1985

96,979

127,730

76

1986

114,359

151,561

75

1987

131,952

177,246

74

1988

149,959

198,863

75

1989

157,315

214,638

73

1990

160,910

221,752

73

1991

170,544

230,179

74

1992

183,262

247,719

74

1993

203,122

272,250

75

1994

205,346

282,046

73

1995

204,928

278,952

73

1996

208,197

288,570

72

1997

202,208

289,802

70

1998

214,289

310,710

69

NOTE: R&D, research and development.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, “Survey of R&D Expenditures at Universities and Colleges,” accessed via WebCASPAR, http://webcaspar.nsf.gov.



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Appendix B The Mathematical Sciences in the 1980s and 1990s TABLE B-1 Federally Financed and Total Academic Research and Education Expenditures in Mathematics and Statistics, 1980-1998 Federally Financed Academic R&D Total Academic R&D Year Expenditures (U.S. $) Expenditures (U.S. $) % Federal 1980 61,246 78,112 78 1981 67,780 87,112 78 1982 71,829 96,419 74 1983 76,518 106,408 72 1984 92,317 123,149 75 1985 96,979 127,730 76 1986 114,359 151,561 75 1987 131,952 177,246 74 1988 149,959 198,863 75 1989 157,315 214,638 73 1990 160,910 221,752 73 1991 170,544 230,179 74 1992 183,262 247,719 74 1993 203,122 272,250 75 1994 205,346 282,046 73 1995 204,928 278,952 73 1996 208,197 288,570 72 1997 202,208 289,802 70 1998 214,289 310,710 69 NOTE: R&D, research and development. SOURCE: National Science Foundation, “Survey of R&D Expenditures at Universities and Colleges,” accessed via WebCASPAR, http://webcaspar.nsf.gov. 

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0 TABLE B-2 Sources and Mechanisms of Support for Full-Time Graduate Students in Mathematics and Statistics Doctorate-Granting Institutions in the United States, 1980-1998 (number, by year) Mechanism Source of Support of Support 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 NSF Fellowships 97 61 55 81 76 85 93 104 114 126 NSF Traineeships 6 9 10 9 1 5 1 1 1 1 NSF RA 149 152 158 131 193 223 253 319 340 339 NSF TA 6 3 1 NA NA 1 2 3 NA 5 NSF Other 4 2 4 2 9 7 8 9 8 4 NIH Fellowships NA NA 1 3 2 NA NA NA NA 3 NIH Traineeships 7 3 5 6 2 2 3 3 1 3 NIH RA 27 19 19 19 18 16 13 19 21 19 NIH TA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NIH Other NA 2 NA NA NA NA 3 2 3 3 HHS (except NIH) Fellowships 5 1 NA NA NA NA 1 NA NA NA HHS (except NIH) Traineeships 4 4 NA NA NA NA NA NA 1 NA HHS (except NIH) RA 9 6 14 13 4 2 3 6 2 8 HHS (except NIH) TA 3 NA NA NA NA 1 1 NA NA NA HHS (except NIH) Other 3 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA DOD Fellowships 9 4 6 7 6 11 14 17 23 27 DOD Traineeships NA NA NA NA NA 1 1 11 7 5 DOD RA 101 77 80 94 109 127 146 146 183 148 DOD Other 219 262 288 209 189 247 271 264 300 215 Other federal Fellowships 15 18 22 26 16 23 23 21 32 95 Other federal Traineeships 5 1 3 7 6 4 11 1 1 30 Other federal RA 135 86 106 93 87 110 123 145 120 148 Other federal TA 18 40 21 17 13 28 7 4 5 16 Other federal Other 46 46 25 43 31 36 22 15 27 24 Nonfederal Fellowships 633 597 603 577 666 738 778 718 772 751 Nonfederal Traineeships 123 116 108 102 150 137 112 141 191 172 Nonfederal RA 363 420 468 453 461 520 500 476 560 642 Nonfederal TA 5,580 5,705 6,051 6,428 6,611 6,776 7,144 7,454 7,589 7,808 Nonfederal Other 437 423 472 444 511 487 549 595 635 585 Self-support Other 1,897 2,095 2,293 2,191 2,148 2,229 2,306 2,569 2,576 2,504

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Mechanism Source of Support of Support 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 NSF Fellowships 136 139 120 114 132 130 126 95 90 NSF Traineeships 2 2 2 5 21 19 22 21 23 NSF RA 335 302 324 332 346 287 257 256 261 NSF TA 16 6 9 17 17 28 25 12 4 NSF Other 2 3 2 2 2 10 5 2 6 NIH Fellowships 4 3 52 15 1 1 NA 1 1 NIH Traineeships 6 10 11 9 11 10 14 13 8 NIH RA 27 48 43 43 55 46 44 47 57 NIH TA 1 3 1 3 NA 1 NA 1 NA NIH Other 1 NA 4 4 1 5 3 4 2 HHS (except NIH) Fellowships NA NA NA NA NA 6 7 21 22 HHS (except NIH) Traineeships 8 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA HHS (except NIH) RA 2 4 6 6 8 18 12 9 10 HHS (except NIH) TA NA NA 1 NA NA NA NA NA NA HHS (except NIH) Other NA 1 NA NA NA NA 2 NA NA DOD Fellowships 52 42 38 42 42 35 30 22 18 DOD Traineeships 7 8 3 3 6 1 4 1 . DOD RA 112 121 139 159 129 125 119 154 89 DOD Other 196 205 206 195 195 161 198 186 176 Other federal Fellowships 200 327 246 225 123 124 123 96 85 Other federal Traineeships 29 55 79 65 31 42 20 14 23 Other federal RA 134 169 172 196 205 183 183 159 124 Other federal TA 25 29 11 20 33 19 24 21 38 Other federal Other 38 26 28 19 39 36 19 17 7 Nonfederal Fellowships 734 854 960 967 918 1,001 999 971 888 Nonfederal Traineeships 129 132 125 176 175 150 119 130 110 Nonfederal RA 725 712 726 700 791 792 681 764 674 Nonfederal TA 7,829 7,728 7,717 7,546 7,584 7,245 7,078 6,665 6,524 Nonfederal Other 632 695 676 529 545 459 513 430 546 Self-support Other 2,483 2,632 2,978 3,138 2,816 2,476 2,339 2,032 1,965 NOTE: NA, not available; NSF, National Science Foundation; RA, Research Assistant; TA, Teaching Assistant; NIH, National Institutes of Health; HHS, Health and Human Services; DOD, Department of Defense. SOURCE: National Science Foundation-National Institutes of Health, “Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in S&E,” accessed via WebCASPAR, http://webcaspar.nsf.gov. 

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 EVALUATION OF NSF’S VIGRE PROGRAM TABLE B-3 Mathematics Doctorate Holders Employed in Academia in the United States, 1981-1999 Mathematics Doctorate Holders Employed in Academic Mathematics Doctorate Holders with Year Academia (no. in thousands) Federal Support (%) 1981 12.4 21.3 1983 12.9 30.1 1985a 13.6 21.5 1987 13.8 31.1 1989 14.5 33.5 1991 15.2 34.5 1993a 15.5 18.8 1995a 14.6 22.3 1997a 15.6 20.9 1999 15.2 29.1 a Not comparable to the other years and understates the degree of federal support by virtue of asking whether work performed during the week of April 15 was supported by the government. In other years, the question pertains to work conducted over the course of a year. SOURCE: Adapted from NSB (2004), Appendix Tables 5-26 and 5-32.

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 APPENDIX B TABLE B-4 Number and Percentage of Full-Time Graduate Students in Mathematics and Statistics at Doctorate-Granting Institutions in the United States, by Gender, Race, and Citizenship, 1980-2006 U.S. Citizens U.S. Citizens Under- Under- Female Female and Permanent and Permanent represented represented Year Total (no.) (no.) (%) Residents (no.) Residents (%) Minorities (no.) Minorities (%) 1980 9,543 2,209 23 NA NA NA NA 1981 9,853 2,426 25 NA NA NA NA 1982 10,421 2,647 25 6,626 64 345 5 1983 10,593 2,776 26 6,431 61 365 6 1984 10,812 2,802 26 6,374 59 326 5 1985 11,318 3,016 27 6,602 58 346 5 1986 11,911 3,216 27 6,865 58 393 6 1987 12,539 3,367 27 7,155 57 445 6 1988 13,014 3,523 27 7,341 56 421 6 1989 13,208 3,775 29 7,329 55 461 6 1990 13,416 3,886 29 7,630 57 501 7 1991 13,822 4,057 29 8,053 58 491 6 1992 14,248 4,271 30 8,599 60 551 6 1993 14,089 4,268 30 8,693 62 633 7 1994 13,741 4,214 31 8,458 62 607 7 1995 12,984 4,030 31 7,927 61 649 8 1996 12,562 4,005 32 7,552 60 623 8 1997 11,772 3,810 32 6,975 59 617 9 1998 11,308 3,741 33 6,730 60 586 9 1999 11,388 3,952 35 6,269 55 588 9 2000 11,382 3,907 34 6,062 53 578 10 2001 12,040 4,198 35 6,301 52 616 10 2002 13,149 4,660 35 6,958 53 646 9 2003 13,988 4,869 35 7,407 53 692 9 2004 14,357 4,922 34 7,774 54 695 9 2005 14,652 4,909 34 8,012 55 732 9 2006 14,995 5,086 34 8,271 55 785 9 NOTE: NA, not available. There is no “unknown” for citizenship and gender. Underrepresented minorities include black, non- Hispanic; American Indian or Alaska Native; and Hispanic. Race/ethnicity data include other/unknown in the denominator. Race/ethnicity is only known for U.S. citizens/permanent residents. SOURCE: National Science Foundation-National Institutes of Health, “Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in S&E,” accessed via WebCASPAR, http://webcaspar.nsf.gov.

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 EVALUATION OF NSF’S VIGRE PROGRAM TABLE B-5 Degrees Awarded in Mathematical Sciences in the United States, 1980-2006, by Degree Level Year Bachelor’s Master’s Doctorate 1980 11,473 2,868 744 1981 11,173 2,569 728 1982 11,708 2,731 720 1983 12,662 2,856 701 1984 13,511 2,770 698 1985 15,389 2,903 688 1986 16,531 3,184 729 1987 16,515 3,327 739 1988 15,981 3,434 749 1989 15,314 3,430 859 1990 14,674 3,684 892 1991 14,784 3,632 1,038 1992 14,931 3,665 1,058 1993 14,853 3,751 1,146 1994 14,632 3,804 1,118 1995 13,851 3,932 1,190 1996 13,076 3,742 1,122 1997 12,723 3,599 1,123 1998 12,094 3,525 1,177 1999 NA NA 1,083 2000 11,735 3,295 1,050 2001 11,455 3,280 1,010 2002 12,273 3,408 920 2003 12,882 3,706 993 2004 13,755 4,297 1,076 2005 14,840 4,598 1,205 2006 15,311 4,896 1,327 NOTE: NA, not available; detailed national data were not released by the National Center for Education Statistics for the academic year ending in 1999. SOURCE: Adapted from NSF, Division of Science Resources Statistics (2008), Table 35.

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 APPENDIX B TABLE B-6 Number and Percentage of Mathematics and Statistics Doctorates in the United States, by Gender, Race, and Citizenship, 1980-2006 U.S. Citizens U.S. Citizens Under- Under- Doctorates Female Female and Permanent and Permanent represented represented Year (no.) (no.) (%) Residents (no.) Residents (%) Minorities (no.) Minorities (%) 1980 744 95 13 583 81 30 5 1981 728 112 15 525 74 44 8 1982 720 96 13 499 72 37 7 1983 701 113 16 459 69 31 7 1984 698 115 16 444 65 49 11 1985 688 106 15 419 64 42 10 1986 729 121 17 402 59 52 13 1987 739 125 17 396 57 52 13 1988 749 121 16 386 56 38 10 1989 859 155 18 428 55 43 10 1990 892 158 18 423 50 45 11 1991 1,038 199 19 517 50 57 11 1992 1,058 205 20 508 50 53 10 1993 1,146 264 23 590 53 59 10 1994 1,118 236 21 657 59 63 10 1995 1,190 265 22 771 67 52 7 1996 1,122 231 21 648 59 45 7 1997 1,123 263 24 629 59 58 9 1998 1,177 297 25 673 60 79 12 1999 1,080 276 26 604 58 55 9 2000 1,050 259 25 574 56 58 10 2001 1,009 275 27 528 55 63 12 2002 917 265 29 443 50 64 14 2003 992 264 27 517 54 72 14 2004 1,074 304 28 509 49 83 16 2005 1,197 324 27 538 47 94 17 2006 1,320 393 30 613 48 90 15 NOTE: The percentage female is the number of females divided by the number of females plus the number of males. In some cases gender was unknown. The same is true for citizenship. Underrepresented minorities include black, non-Hispanic; American Indian or Alaska Native; and Hispanic. The percentage of underrepresented minorities is divided by total doctorates, which include some people for whom race/ethnicity is “other/unknown.” SOURCE: National Science Foundation, “Survey of Earned Doctorates/Doctorate Records File,” accessed via WebCASPAR, http://webcasper.nsf.gov.

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6 EVALUATION OF NSF’S VIGRE PROGRAM TABLE B-7 Number and Percentage of Doctorates in Mathematical Sciences in the United States Received by U.S. Citizens, 1980-1981 to 2007-2008 Year Total Doctorates by U.S. Institutions Total U.S. Citizen Doctoral Recipients Percent 1980-1981 839 567 68 1981-1982 798 519 65 1982-1983 744 455 61 1983-1984 738 433 59 1984-1985 726 396 55 1985-1986 755 386 51 1986-1987 739 362 49 1987-1988 798 363 45 1988-1989 884 411 46 1989-1990 929 401 43 1990-1991 1,061 461 43 1991-1992 1,016 430 42 1992-1993 1,197 526 44 1993-1994 1,059 469 44 1994-1995 1,207 567 47 1995-1996 1,150 493 43 1996-1997 1,158 516 45 1997-1998a 1,216 586 48 1998-1999 1,133 554 49 1999-1900 1,119 537 48 2000-2001 1,008 494 49 2001-2002 948 NA NA 2002-2003 1,017 489 48 2003-2004 1,041 441 42 2004-2005 1,116 433 39 2005-2006 1,245 522 42 2006-2007 1,157 500 43 2007-2008 1,235 540 44 a Priorto this year, the counts include new doctoral recipients from Group Vb (departments granting doctoral degrees in opera- tions research/management science). The figures for 1997-1998 excluding Vb are 1,163 new doctoral recipients, of which 565 are U.S. citizens. In addition, prior to 1982-1983, the counts include new doctoral recipients from computer science departments. SOURCE: Davis (1999), Phipps et al. (2008a).

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 APPENDIX B TABLE B-8 Number and Percentage of Doctorates in Mathematical Sciences in the United States, 1980-1981 to 1998-1999, by Gender Year Total U.S. Citizen Doctoral Recipients (no.) Male (no.) Female (no.) Percent Female (%) 1980-1981 567 465 102 18 1981-1982 519 431 88 17 1982-1983 455 366 89 20 1983-1984 433 346 87 20 1984-1985 396 315 81 20 1985-1986 386 304 82 21 1986-1987 362 289 73 20 1987-1988 363 287 76 21 1988-1989 411 313 98 24 1989-1990 401 312 89 22 1990-1991 461 349 112 24 1991-1992 430 327 103 24 1992-1993 526 381 145 28 1993-1994 469 345 124 26 1994-1995 567 426 141 25 1995-1996 493 377 116 24 1996-1997 516 368 148 29 1997-1998a 586 423 163 28 1998-1999 554 367 187 34 a Prior to this year, the counts include new doctoral recipients from Group Vb (departments granting doctoral degrees in opera - tions research/management science). The figures for 1997-1998 excluding Vb are 565 U.S.-citizen new doctoral recipients, of which 409 are male and 156 are female. In addition, prior to 1982-1983, the counts include new doctoral recipients from computer science departments. SOURCE: Davis (1999), Phipps et al. (2008a).

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 EVALUATION OF NSF’S VIGRE PROGRAM TABLE B-9 Number of Postdoctoral Fellows in Mathematics and Statistics at Doctorate-Granting Institutions in the United States, 1980-2006 Year Postdoctoral Fellows (no.) 1980 162 1981 113 1982 194 1983 170 1984 203 1985 226 1986 201 1987 229 1988 284 1989 224 1990 248 1991 206 1992 201 1993 224 1994 239 1995 262 1996 326 1997 307 1998 279 1999 351 2000 385 2001 353 2002 393 2003 449 2004 468 2005 496 2006 574 SOURCE: National Science Foundation-National Institutes of Health, “Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in S&E,” accessed via WebCASPAR, http://webcaspar.nsr.gov.