Achievement awards since then. He has authored more than 120 scientific articles. He served on the NRC Task Group on the Forward Contamination of Europa and the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration.

FRANK CULBERTSON, JR., is a former astronaut and a retired captain from the U.S. Navy. He is senior vice president and deputy general manager of the Advanced Program Group at Orbital Sciences Corporation where he is responsible for human spaceflight programs, including commercial transportation services to the International Space Station (ISS). Prior to joining Orbital, Mr. Culbertson was a senior vice president at Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), initially as program manager of the Safety, Reliability and Quality Assurance contract at NASA, before progressing to business unit general management and director of SAIC’s Global Climate Change Programs. Mr. Culbertson was a NASA astronaut for 18 years in a variety of critical spaceflight and management roles for NASA’s space shuttle and space station programs, including three launches aboard the space shuttle and command of the ISS. In total, he has logged more than 144 days in space and over five hours of extra-vehicular activity (space walk) experience. Mr. Culbertson also served as program manager of the Shuttle-Mir Program for three years and deputy program manager for operations for the ISS program.

DAVID JEWITT is a professor in the department of physics and astronomy , and an astronomer at the Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawaii. He has focused his research on studying the vast population of small icy bodies in the Kuiper Belt at and beyond the orbits of Neptune and Pluto. He has also studied comets and other primitive bodies of the solar system, many of which are evolved Kuiper Belt objects. Dr. Jewitt is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He has previously served on several NRC committees, including the Committee on a New Science Strategy for Solar System Exploration and the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee.

STEPHEN MACKWELL is director of the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston, Texas. Prior to his appointment, Dr. Mackwell served as director of the Bayerisches Geoinstitut at the University of Bayreuth, Germany. Under his guidance, the Geoinstitut strengthened its position as one of the preeminent experimental geosciences facilities in the world, and broadened its research programs to more fully address deep-Earth issues. Dr. Mackwell served as program director for geophysics, Division of Earth Sciences, National Science Foundation (1993-1994), expert reviewer for the Department of Energy’s Geosciences Research Program (1993), member of the review panel for NASA’s Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program (1994-1996 and 2002-present), group chief of the review panel for NASA’s Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program (1996-1998), and expert consultant for the Division of Earth Sciences, National Science Foundation (1995). Dr. Mackwell conducts laboratory-based research into the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of geological materials under conditions relevant to the mantle and crust of Earth and other terrestrial planets. He served on the NRC Committee on New Opportunities in Solar System Exploration.

H. JAY MELOSH is professor of theoretical geophysics and planetary surfaces at Purdue University. Some of Dr. Melosh’s previous positions include professor at the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona, associate professor of planetary science at the California Institute of Technology and associate professor of geophysics at State University of New York at Stony Brook. He has made many important contributions to Earth and planetary sciences, including definitive studies of the collisional origin of the Moon and the process of impact cratering. His other major contributions include acoustic fluidization, dynamic topography, and planetary tectonics. He is active in astrobiological studies relating chiefly to microorganism exchange between the terrestrial planets. Dr. Melosh is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He has served on the NRC Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration.

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