Kennedy, S.K., and D.E. Longnecker. 1996. History and principles of anesthesiology. P. 302 in Goodman & Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th Ed., J.G. Hardman et al., eds. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Kylin, B., A. Englund, H. Ehrner-Samuel, and S. Yllner. 1966. A comparative study on the toxicology of nitroglycerine, nitroglycol and propylene glycol dinitrate. Pp. 191-195 in Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Occupational Health, September 19–24, 1966, Vienna, Austria, Vol. 3. Hygiene, Toxicology, Occupational Disease. Vienna: Verlag der Wiener Medizinischen Akademie.

Litton Bionetics, Inc. 1979. Mutagenicity Evaluation of Otto Fuel Number 2 in the Ames Salmonella/Microsome Plate Test. Segment report. ADA112227. Prepared by Litton Bionetics, Inc., Kensington, MD, to U.S. Department of the Navy, Office of Naval Research, Arlington, VA.

Marshall, B.E., and D.E. Longnecker. 1996. General anesthetics. P. 307 in Goodman & Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th Ed., J.G. Hardman et al., eds. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Mattsson, J.L., R.W. Young, C.R. Curran, C.G. Franz, M.J. Cowan, Jr., and L.J. Jenkins, Jr. 1981. Acute and chronic propylene glycol dinitrate exposure in the monkey. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 52(6):340-345.

Nickerson, M. 1975. Vasodilator drugs. Pp. 727-743 in The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 5th Ed., L. Goodman, and A. Gilman, eds. New York: MacMillan.

NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2005. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH). No. 2005-149. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Cincinnati, OH [online]. Available: [accessed Jan. 27, 2009].

NRC (National Research Council). 1982. Evaluation of the Health Risks of Ordnance Disposal Waste in Drinking Water. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC (National Research Council). 2002. Propylene glycol dinitrate. Pp. 71-119 in Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals, Vol. 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NSWC (Naval Surface Warfare Center). 1995. Otto Fuel II – 1356-00-842-0630. Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) [online]. Available: [accessed April 14, 2009].

Ruth, J.H. 1986. Odor thresholds and irritation levels of several chemical substances: A review. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 47(3):A142-A151.

Stewart, R.D., J.E. Peterson, P.E. Newton, C.L. Hake, M.J. Hosko, A.J. Lebrun, and G.M. Lawton. 1974. Experimental human exposure to propylene glycol dinitrate. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 30(3): 377-395.

Wyman, J.F., B.H. Gray, L.H. Lee, J. Coleman, C. Flemming, and D.E. Uddin. 1985. Interspecies variability in propylene glycol dinitrate-induced methemoglobin formation. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 81(2):203-212.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement