Appendix C
Observational Platforms Used for Long-Range Pollution Transport Studies



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Appendix C Observational Platforms Used for Long-Range Pollution Transport Studies 

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Ozone PM (chemical  Ozone Precursorsa PM constituents) Hgb POPs Key Contributions Commerical Aircraft MOZAIC Y Y Routine cross-Atlantic measurements on several European Airbus aircraft in flight corridor plus profiles of O3, CO, H2O (1994-present) and NO, NOy in addition (2001-present). CARIBIC Y Y Y Y Multiple species measured in container on an in-service aircraft as part of European project, 1997 to 2002 and 2004 to present. NOXAR Y Y Routine measurement of O3, NO, NO2 on Swiss aircraft over North Atlantic in UT in 1995/1996. Airborne Campaigns [North American export] NARE I & II Y Y Y Y Large international field campaigns involving multiple platforms examining export of North American pollution over North Atlantic, summer 1993 and 1997. SONEX Y Y NASA-led campaign focused on impact of aircraft emissions on UT(LS), autumn 1997. POLINAT Y Y German DLR-Falcon campaign on impact of aircraft emissions over North Atlantic, autumn 1997.

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ACTO, MAXOX, Y Y European multi-aircraft campaigns EXPORT examining import of NA pollution into European free troposphere and export of EU pollution, spring and summer 1999-2000. ICARTT Y Y Y Y Large international field campaign involving multiple platforms focused on detection and quantification of North America to Europe long-range transport. First attempt to conduct Lagrangian experiment, by making multiple sampling of same plume across Atlantic. Included NASA INTEX-NA, European ITOP missions, summer 2004. YAK-AEROSIB Y Y French-Russian flights over Siberia, export of European pollution, transport of Siberian FF plumes to NA, spring and summer 2006-2008. ABLE 3A/3B Y Y GTE missions investigating chemical composition over tundra and Arctic regions, 1988, 1990. TOPSE Y Y Characterization of Arctic Haze breakdown, origins of springtime ozone in midlatitude and polar regions, winter and spring 2000  continued

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Ozone PM (chemical  Ozone Precursorsa PM constituents) Hgb POPs Key Contributions POLARCAT Y Y Y Y Y Large international field on export of NA (and other) pollution to the Arctic, radiative and climate impacts – contribution to IPY; impact of AN and FF pollution. Included NASA ARCTAS, DLR-GRACE, NOAA-ICEALOT, NOAA- ARCPAC, DOE-ISDAC, POLARCAT- France missions, spring and summer 2008. Airborne Campaigns [focus on North American import] PEM-West B Y Y NASA experiment to quantify outflow of pollutants from Asia during spring 1994. TRACE-P/ACE-Asia Y Y Y Y Large international field experiment involving numerous platforms and groups to examine Asian pollutant formation, outflow and transport across the Pacific, spring 2001. ITCT-2K2 Y Y Y Y NOAA-led campaign focusing on import of pollutants into southwest USA, summer 2002. INTEX-B Y Y Y Y Y NASA campaign focusing on pollution import into North America (also DLR- Falcon over Germany), spring 2006. PHOBEA-I, II Y Y Y Y Y University of Washington experiment (1997-1999 and 2001-2003) to detect and quantify flux of Asian pollution to North America.

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Satellite Instruments METEOR-3, NIMBUS-7, Y Y UV absorbing Multiyear dataset for the study of EP/TOMS (dust, smoke) interannual variability of tropospheric O3 and AI. ERS-2/GOME Y Y Y Multiyear dataset for the study of interannual variability and inverse modeling of emissions, especially NO2. ENVISAT/SCIAMACHY Y Y Y Multiyear dataset for the study of interannual variability and inverse modeling of emissions, especially NO2. TERRA/MOPITT Y Multiyear CO dataset for the study of interannual variability and inverse modeling of emissions. TERRA, AQUA/MODIS Y Y Multiyear AOD dataset for the study of interannual variability; daily coverage is possible for tracking aerosol plumes as they develop; inverse modeling of emissions. TERRA/MISR Y Aerosol type and plume height information. AQUA/AIRS Y Y Y Daily coverage is possible for CO plume tracking; upper troposphere O3. (SCISAT/ACE) Y Y Y Observations of transport and chemical processing in the upper troposphere. AURA/TES Y Y Coincident measurements of O3 and precursors for process studies.  continued

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Ozone PM (chemical  Ozone Precursorsa PM constituents) Hgb POPs Key Contributions AURA/OMI Y Y Y Dust, smoke, Good coverage of O3, precursors and sulfates AI; possibility of tracking plumes as they develop; inverse modeling of emissions. AURA/MLS Y Y Good sensitivity to upper tropospheric CO transport; provides stratospheric O3 column for use in tropospheric O3 residual retrievals (especially with OMI). METOP-A/IASI Y Y Daily coverage of O3 and precursors is possible for plume tracking; first of 3 missions that will provide data through 2020. METOP-A/GOME2 Y Y First of 3 missions that will provide data through 2020. (CLOUDSAT/CALIPSO) Y High vertical resolution information on aerosol distribution and type for suborbital plume transects . Ground-based networks NOAA/ESRL Atmospheric Y Y Y 5 sites (3 in NH) focused on GHG Baseline Observatories distribution. Some use of this data for LRT studies. NOAA/ESRL Cooperative Y Network collects weekly flask samples Air Sampling Network from approximately 100 sites around the globe. Major focus is on GHG distribution, but data provide some utility for understanding LRT.

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WMO/GAW Global Y Y There are approximately 22 GAW Observatories stations, which includes the ESRL sites and other national programs. GAW observatories are similar in design to ESRL Atmospheric Baseline Observatories but provide broader spatial coverage. Gas phase observations are made regularly at most sites. The GAW program recommends an extensive set of aerosol measurements, including AOD, light scattering, size distribution. However, only a small fraction of the sites are currently reporting aerosol data to the GAW data center. CASTNET Y U.S. network of approximately 100 Clean Air Status and sites to obtain background observations Trends Network of surface ozone and some additional parameters relevant to understanding trends and ecosystem impacts of air pollutants. A small fraction of the sites measure CO and NOy. Many sites are colocated with an IMPROVE aerosol sampler.  continued

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Ozone PM (chemical 0 Ozone Precursorsa PM constituents) Hgb POPs Key Contributions IMPROVE Y Y U.S. network of approximately 200 Interagency Monitoring sites to obtain regional background of Protected Visual aerosol mass loadings and chemical Environments composition of fine mode aerosol (D < 2.5 µm). IMPROVE data has been used in numerous studies to document LRT. Many sites are colocated with a CASTNET measurements of O3. CAMNET Y Canadian Atmospheric Mercury Network Canadian Atmospheric (TGM (CAMNET) measures total gaseous Mercury Network and wet mercury at 11 sites across Canada. Wet dep) deposition of mercury is also measured at some of these sites. MDN/AMI Y (wet MDN collects weekly Hg in wet Mercury Deposition dep) deposition at approximately 85 sites in Network, Atmospheric the United States. AMI is a new inititive Mercury Initiative which will collect speciated Hg data at multiple sites for quantification of dry deposition. EMEP Y Y Y Y Y Y European program to measure gas and aerosol compounds in support of the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. Measurements are made at several hundred sites across Europe.

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EANET (Acid Deposition Y Y Integration of national networks across Monitoring Network in Asia for acid deposition, ozone, and East Asia) aerosols. Other Research sites Mt. Bachelor Observatory Y Y Y Y Y Mountain top (2.7 km) research station on the west coast of the United States (Oregon). Operated by the University of Washington and Oregon State University. a Ozone precursors include CO, CH4, volatile organic compounds, and nitrogen oxides. A [Y] in this box indicates measurement of any one or more of these species. b While the chemical form of Hg is important, here we do not distinguish between measurements of total, elemental or Hg+2. 

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