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Biographical Sketches of Committee Members

KENNETH I. SHINE, M.D. (Chair), is Executive Vice Chancellor for Health Affairs of the University of Texas System, which oversees the six University of Texas health institutions, including medical, dental, and public health schools. He is the former President of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) at the National Academies, and was the founding Director of the RAND Center for Domestic and International Health Security. Dr. Shine is Professor of Medicine Emeritus at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) School of Medicine, where he served as dean and provost prior to his appointment at the IOM. A cardiologist and physiologist, he has an A.B. in biochemical sciences from Harvard College and an M.D. from Harvard Medical School. He is a Fellow of the American College of Cardiology and American College of Physicians and is a member of many other honorary and academic societies, including the Institute of Medicine. He served as Chairman of the Council of Deans of the Association of American Medical Colleges from 1991–1992, and was President of the American Heart Association from 1985–1986. Dr. Shine’s many publications are not only in the field of cardiology but also on issues of medical research, public health, and public policy. He has served as an advisor to many national commissions and chaired a number of IOM studies.


M. E. BONNIE ROGERS, Dr.PH, COHN-S, LNNC, FAAN (Vice Chair) is an associate professor of nursing and public health and director of the North Carolina Occupational Safety and Health Education and Research Center and the Occupational Health Nursing Program at the University of North Carolina, School of Public Health, Chapel Hill. Dr. Rogers received her diploma in nursing from the Washington Hospital



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C Biographical Sketches of Committee Members KENNETH I. SHINE, M.D. (Chair), is Executive Vice Chancellor for Health Affairs of the University of Texas System, which oversees the six University of Texas health institutions, including medical, dental, and public health schools. He is the former President of the Institute of Medi- cine (IOM) at the National Academies, and was the founding Director of the RAND Center for Domestic and International Health Security. Dr. Shine is Professor of Medicine Emeritus at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) School of Medicine, where he served as dean and provost prior to his appointment at the IOM. A cardiologist and physi- ologist, he has an A.B. in biochemical sciences from Harvard College and an M.D. from Harvard Medical School. He is a Fellow of the Ameri- can College of Cardiology and American College of Physicians and is a member of many other honorary and academic societies, including the Institute of Medicine. He served as Chairman of the Council of Deans of the Association of American Medical Colleges from 1991–1992, and was President of the American Heart Association from 1985–1986. Dr. Shine’s many publications are not only in the field of cardiology but also on issues of medical research, public health, and public policy. He has served as an advisor to many national commissions and chaired a number of IOM studies. M. E. BONNIE ROGERS, Dr.PH, COHN-S, LNNC, FAAN (Vice Chair) is an associate professor of nursing and public health and director of the North Carolina Occupational Safety and Health Education and Research Center and the Occupational Health Nursing Program at the University of North Carolina, School of Public Health, Chapel Hill. Dr. Rogers received her diploma in nursing from the Washington Hospital 53

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54 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR HEALTHCARE WORKERS Center School of Nursing, Washington, DC; her baccalaureate in nursing from George Mason University, School of Nursing, Fairfax, Virginia; and her master of public health degree and doctorate in public health from the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health. Dr. Rogers was a visiting scholar at the Hasting Center in New York and is an ethics consultant. She is certified in occupational health nursing and as a legal nurse consultant. Dr. Rogers is a fellow in the American Academy of Nursing and the American Association of Occu- pational Health Nurses. Dr. Rogers serves as chairperson of the NIOSH National Occupational Research Agenda Liaison Committee. She has served on numerous Institute of Medicine committees including the Committee on Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Workers During an Influenza Pandemic and on the IOM Standing Committee on Personal Protective Equipment for Workplace Safety and Health. Dr. Rogers has served in leadership positions for occupational health profes- sional societies and is past president of the American Association of Oc- cupational Health Nurses and the Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics. She is currently Vice President of the Interna- tional Commission on Occupational Health. GLORIA ADDO-AYENSU, M.D., M.P.H., is the Director of Health for Fairfax County. In this capacity she provides overall direction for public health programs in the county, including emergency preparedness. She has led Fairfax County’s comprehensive pandemic influenza prepar- edness efforts and engaged a wide range of community stakeholders in the process. As past Chair of the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments Health Officials Committee, she facilitated initial coordina- tion of the National Capital Region’s pandemic planning in 2006. Dr. Addo-Ayensu is interested in international health and has served as a consultant to research and public health programs in Ghana. HOWARD J. COHEN, Ph.D., is professor emeritus (formerly professor and chair of the Occupational Safety and Health Department) at the Uni- versity of New Haven. He is an associate (adjunct) professor at Yale University’s department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. He formerly was the manager of industrial hygiene at the Olin Corpora- tion and editor in chief of the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) Journal. He is a graduate of Boston University where he received a B.A. degree in biology. Dr. Cohen received his master of public health and doctorate of philosophy degrees in industrial health from the Univer-

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55 APPENDIX C sity of Michigan. He is certified in the comprehensive practice of indus- trial hygiene by the American Board of Industrial Hygiene. Dr. Cohen is the former chair of the American National Standards Institute Z88.2 committee on respiratory protection and a current member of the edito- rial board of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. He is the past chair of the AIHA’s respiratory protection committee, a past president of the Connecticut River Valley Chapter of the American Industrial Hygiene Association, and a past officer and treasurer of the American Board of Industrial Hygiene. Dr. Cohen served on the IOM Committee on Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Workers During an Influenza Pandemic and on the IOM Standing Committee on Personal Protective Equipment for Workplace Safety and Health. He is currently working as a consultant to the Veterans Administration’s North Florida/South Georgia Center for Occupational Safety and Infectious Disease (on the advisory board and assisting on an upcoming clinical study of influenza). Dr. Cohen is also a consultant to a pharmaceutical company that has developed the first FDA/NIOSH certified antiviral N95 surgical respirator. LEWIS R. GOLDFRANK, M.D. (IOM), is professor and chair of emergency medicine, New York University School of Medicine. He is the medical director of the New York City Poison Control Center. Dr. Goldfrank served as president of the Society of Academic Emergency Medicine and chaired the American Board of Emergency Medicine’s Subboard on Medical Toxicology. He is coeditor of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry’s Medical Guidelines for Managing Hazmat Incidents, and senior editor of Goldfrank’s Toxicologic Emer- gencies, a standard text in medical toxicology. Dr. Goldfrank is a mem- ber of the IOM and chaired both the IOM Committee on Responding to the Psychological Consequences of Terrorism and the IOM Standing Committee on Personal Protective Equipment for Workplace Safety and Health. He recently chaired the IOM Committee on Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Workers During an Influenza Pandemic. He currently chairs the Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Catastrophic Events. SUNDARESAN JAYARAMAN, Ph.D., is a professor in the School of Polymer, Textile and Fiber Engineering and in the College of Manage- ment at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, Georgia. He and his research students have made significant contributions in enterprise

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56 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR HEALTHCARE WORKERS architecture and modeling methodologies for information systems; engi- neering design of intelligent textile structures and processes; and design and development of knowledge-based systems for textiles and apparel. His group’s research has resulted in the realization of the world’s first Wearable Motherboard™ or Smart Shirt. He is currently engaged in studying the role of management and technology innovation in health care. He received his Ph.D. degree from North Carolina State University, in 1984, and the M.Tech. and B.Tech. degrees from the University of Madras, India, in 1978 and 1976, respectively. He was involved in the design and development of TK!Solver, the first equation-solving pro- gram from Software Arts, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts. Dr. Jayara- man worked as a product manager at Software Arts, Inc., and at Lotus Development Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts, before joining Georgia Tech in the fall of 1985. Professor Jayaraman is a recipient of the 1989 Presidential Young Investigator Award from the National Sci- ence Foundation for his research in the area of computer-aided manufac- turing and enterprise architecture. He has served on several Institute of Medicine and National Research Council committees including the Committee on Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Workers During an Influenza Pandemic, the IOM Standing Committee on Per- sonal Protective Equipment for Workplace Safety and Health, and the Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design. WILLIAM H. KOJOLA, M.S., is the Industrial Hygienist for the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) Department of Occupational Safety and Health. His experi- ence in health and safety spans more than 25 years. During that time, Mr. Kojola has been the Director of the Occupational Safety and Health Di- vision of the Laborers Health and Safety Fund of North America, an oc- cupational safety and health specialist for the International Brotherhood of Boilermakers, and director of safety and health for the United Cement, Lime, Gypsum and Allied Workers International Union. Prior to this, he was a health research scientist at the University of Illinois School of Pub- lic Health, studying the human health effects of air and water pollutants. With the AFL-CIO, Bill Kojola is responsible for developing strategies for securing new safety and health protections through federal and state regulations, coordinating with affiliates on and leading a unified labor response to proposed OSHA regulations, and representing the AFL-CIO before government regulatory agencies on federal advisory committees, and consensus standard setting efforts. He also provides technical and

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57 APPENDIX C strategic support to organizing campaigns on safety and health issues. Mr. Kojola holds a B.S. degree in biology and an M.S. degree in genetics from the University of Minnesota, and studied toxicology and industrial hygiene at the University of Illinois School of Public Health. RAINA MacINTYRE, MBBS (Hons), M App Epid, FRACP, FAFPHM, Ph.D., is Head of the School of Public Health and Commu- nity Medicine at the University of New South Wales, Australia, and Pro- fessor of Infectious Diseases Epidemiology. She runs a highly strategic research program spanning epidemiology, vaccinology, mathematical modelling, public health, and clinical trials in infectious diseases. She trained in internal medicine, epidemiology and public health. Her re- search is supported by NHMRC and ARC grants, and she has received international recognition by way of a major award, the Sir Henry Well- come Medal and Prize, from the U.S. military in 2007 for her work on bioterrorism. She has also won the Australian Society for Infectious Dis- eases Award for Advanced Research in Infectious Diseases. She is best known for research in the detailed understanding of the transmission dy- namics and prevention of infectious diseases, particularly respiratory pathogens such as influenza, tuberculosis, and other vaccine-preventable infections. She has a particular interest in adult vaccination with a focus on the elderly, and in the use of face masks and respirators in the preven- tion of clinical respiratory viral infections. She has over 120 publications in peer reviewed journals and serves on the Scientific Influenza Advisory Group to the Chief Medical Officer of Australia. She is an Associate Edi- tor for Epidemiology and Infection. MARK NICAS, Ph.D., M.P.H., CIH, is Adjunct Professor of Environ- mental Health Sciences, and Director of the Industrial Hygiene Program, in the Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Nicas has two primary research areas. First, he develops probability models for pathogen infec- tion via relevant exposure pathways including inhalation, surface-to- hand-to-face contact, and droplet spray. He has applied a multiple path- way exposure model to examine the relative contribution of different pathways to influenza virus infection risk. Second, he develops mathe- matical models to estimate exposure intensity to airborne chemical toxi- cants, both particulate and gas-phase. Such models consider the pollutant emission rate and the dispersion pattern in air. Past research involved probability modeling of variability in the efficacy of personal respiratory

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58 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR HEALTHCARE WORKERS protection, and risk analyses for M. tuberculosis infection and disease incidence among healthcare workers. Dr. Nicas received a B.S. in Biol- ogy/Chemistry from the City College of New York, a M.S. in Genetics from the University of Wisconsin, and M.P.H. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of California, Berkeley. He is an editorial board member of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene and the Journal of Applied Biosafety, a recipient of the Edward J. Baier Techni- cal Achievement Award from the American Industrial Hygiene Associa- tion, and a Fellow of that same association. PETER PALESE, Ph.D., is a Professor of Microbiology and Chair of the Department of Microbiology at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York. His scientific publications include research on the replica- tion of RNA-containing viruses with a special emphasis on influenza viruses, which are negative-strand RNA viruses. Specifically, he estab- lished the first genetic maps for influenza A, B, and C viruses, identified the function of several viral genes, and defined the mechanism of neura- minidase inhibitors (which are now FDA-approved antivirals). Dr. Palese also pioneered the field of reverse genetics for negative strand RNA vi- ruses, which allows the introduction of site-specific mutations into the genomes of these viruses. This technique is crucial for the study of the structure/function relationships of viral genes, for investigation of viral pathogenicity, and for development and manufacture of influenza virus vaccines. In addition, an improvement of the technique has been effec- tively used to reconstruct and study the pathogenicity of the highly viru- lent but extinct 1918 pandemic influenza virus. His recent work in collaboration with Garcia-Sastre has revealed that most negative strand RNA viruses possess proteins with interferon antagonist activity, ena- bling them to counteract the antiviral response of the infected host. Dr. Palese was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2000 for his seminal studies on influenza viruses. At present he serves on the editorial board for the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and as an editor for the Journal of Virology. Dr. Palese was president of the Harvey Society in 2004, and he is the Past President of the American Society for Virology. TRISH M. PERL, M.D., M.Sc., is Professor of Medicine and Pathology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and in the Depart- ment of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health at Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Perl is also director of hospital epidemiol-

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59 APPENDIX C ogy and infection control and the hospital epidemiologist at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. She received her medical degree from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and a master of science degree in epi- demiology and biostatistics from McGill University. Dr. Perl is a mem- ber of the American College of Physicians, American Society of Microbiology, American Federation for Clinical Research, Society of Healthcare Epidemiology of America, Association of Practitioners of Infection Control, and Infectious Diseases Society of America. She has served as the president of the Society of Healthcare Epidemiology of America. She has served on advisory panels for CDC and served as a consultant to the National Institutes of Health and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. She has over 120 peer-reviewed publi- cations. Her research focuses on prevention of infections in healthcare settings including the prevention of emerging infections, healthcare- associated infections, epidemiologically significant and multidrug resis- tant organisms bioterrorism preparedness, preparation for pandemic in- fluenza, and patient and healthcare worker safety. Dr. Perl served on the Institute of Medicine Committee on Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Workers During an Influenza Pandemic. TIA POWELL, M.D., is Director of the Montefiore-Einstein Center for Bioethics and a faculty member at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York. She served from 2004 to 2008 as executive director of the New York State Task Force on Life and the Law and from 1992 to 1998 as Director of Clinical Ethics at Columbia-Presbyterian Hospital in New York City. Dr. Powell is a graduate of Harvard-Radcliffe College and Yale Medical School. She did her psychiatric internship, residency, and a fellowship in Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry all at Columbia Univer- sity, College of P&S, and the NYS Psychiatric Institute. She is a Fellow of the American Psychiatric Association and of the New York Academy of Medicine and a member of the American Society of Bioethics and Humanities. In 2007, she co-chaired New York State Department of Health's workgroup to develop guidelines for allocating ventilators dur- ing a flu pandemic. CAROL RAPHAEL, M.P.A., is President and Chief Executive Officer of Visiting Nurse Service of New York, the largest nonprofit home health agency in the United States. She oversees VNSNY’s comprehen- sive programs in post-acute care, long-term care, children’s and family services, end-of-life care, rehabilitation, mental health and public health,

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60 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR HEALTHCARE WORKERS as well as its health plans for dully eligible Medicare and Medicaid bene- ficiaries. Ms. Raphael developed the Center for Home Care Policy and Research, which conducts policy-relevant research focusing on the man- agement and quality of home and community-based services. Previously, Ms. Raphael held positions as Director of Operations Management at Mt. Sinai Medical Center and Executive Deputy Commissioner of the Hu- man Resources Administration in charge of the Medicaid and Public As- sistance programs in New York City. Between 1999 and 2005, Ms. Raphael was a member of MedPAC. She served on the New York State Hospital Review and Planning Council for 12 years (1992–2004) and chaired its Fiscal Policy Committee. She chairs the New York eHealth Collaborative and was a member of the IOM’s Committee to Study the Future Health Care Workforce for Older Americans, which issued its report in April 2008. She is on the boards of Excellus/Lifetime Health- care Company, Pace University, and the Continuing Care Leadership Coalition. She is a member of the Harvard School of Public Health’s Health Policy Management Executive Council, the Markle Foundation Connecting for Health Steering Group, Atlantic Philanthropies Geriatrics Practice Scholars Program, the Henry Schein Company Medical Advi- sory Board, the Jonas Center for Excellence in Nursing Advisory Board, NYU College of Nursing Advisory Board, the AARP Foundation Women’s Leadership Circle, and the National Advisory Committee of the Caregiving Project for Older Americans. She also served on the boards of Barrier Therapeutics, a public specialty pharmaceutical com- pany from 2005 to 2008, and the American Foundation for the Blind for 10 years (1998–2008). She has authored papers and presentations on postacute, long-term and end-of-life care and coedited the book Home Based Care for a New Century. Ms. Raphael has an M.P.A. from Har- vard University’s Kennedy School of Government, and was a Visiting Fellow at the Kings Fund in the United Kingdom. Ms. Raphael was re- cently listed in the Crain’s New York Business Top 25 Most Influential Businesswomen in New York City.