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School Meals: Building Blocks for Healthy Children Appendix A Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Glossary ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AI Adequate Intake AMDR Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range AMS Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture ARS Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture BMI body mass index CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CFR Code of Federal Regulations CN Child Nutrition CNP Child Nutrition Programs CPI Consumer Price Index DASH Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension DFE dietary folate equivalent DGA Dietary Guidelines for Americans DRI Dietary Reference Intakes EAR Estimated Average Requirement EER Estimated Energy Requirement
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School Meals: Building Blocks for Healthy Children FAFH food away from home FBMP food-based menu planning FNDDS Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies FNS Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture FR Federal Register FY fiscal year g gram G/B grain/bread HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services IOM Institute of Medicine, The National Academies IU international unit K kindergarten kcal kilocalorie/calorie mg milligram M/MA meat or meat alternate MPLH meals per labor hour NBMP nutrient-based menu planning NCHS National Center for Health Statistics, CDC NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NSLA National School Lunch Act NSLP National School Lunch Program OVS offer versus serve oz ounce P.L. Public Law PPS probability proportional to size RA/RAE retinol activity/retinol activity equivalent RDA Recommended Dietary Allowance RE retinol equivalent REA Recommended Energy Allowance SBP School Breakfast Program SFA school food authority SMI School Meals Initiative SM-TMI School Meals-Target Median Intake
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School Meals: Building Blocks for Healthy Children SNDA School Nutrition Dietary Assessment study TMI Target Median Intake tsp teaspoon μg microgram UL Tolerable Upper Intake Level USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture V/F vegetable/fruit WIC Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children GLOSSARY Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges The range of intakes of an energy source that is associated with a reduced risk of chronic disease yet that can provide adequate amounts of essential nutrients. Adequate Intake A recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group or groups of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate. Alternate Menu Planning Approaches (Any Reasonable Approach) Under current regulations, menu planning approaches that are adopted or developed by state food authorities or state agencies and that differ from the standard approaches. The state agency should be contacted for specific details, as alternate approaches may require prior state agency review and approval. As Offered The foods that are planned and prepared for school breakfast and school lunch. (Used in reference to the first element of the Meal Requirements.) As Selected New terminology for the food items that the student places on his or her tray to obtain a reimbursable meal. (Used in reference to the second element of the Meal Requirements.) As Served Current terminology for the food items that the student places on his or her tray for a reimbursable meal. Baseline Menus See Representative baseline menus and Modified baseline menus. Combi Oven A combination of a steamer and a convection oven. Dietary Reference Intakes A family of nutrient reference values established by the Institute of Medicine.
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School Meals: Building Blocks for Healthy Children Enhanced Food-Based Menu Planning Approach One of the two existing food-based menu planning approaches established by the U.S. Department of Agriculture that uses meal patterns with food items from specific food group components in specific amounts, by age-grade group, to plan meals. It is similar to the traditional food-based menu planning approach, except that it uses different age-grade groups and a different number of servings of vegetables/fruits and grains/breads. Entrée A school lunch or breakfast menu item that is a combination of foods or a single food item offered as the main course, as defined by the menu planner. Typically, the entrée is the central focus of the meal and forms the framework around which the rest of the meal is planned. Estimated Average Requirement The usual daily intake level that is estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals in a life-stage and gender group. Estimated Energy Requirement For children, the estimated energy requirement represents the sum of the dietary energy intake predicted to maintain energy balance for the child’s age, weight, height, and activity level plus an amount to cover normal growth and development. Food-Based Menu Planning An approach to menu planning that is based on the types and amounts of foods to be offered. Food Component One of five food groups that currently comprise reimbursable meals planned under a food-based menu planning approach. The five food components are meat and meat alternate, grains and breads, fruits, vegetables, and fluid milk. Food Item (current definition) A specific food from the five food components required to be offered in school lunches under food-based menu planning approaches or one of the four food components required to be offered in school breakfasts. Food Item (revised definition to correspond to recommendations in this report) A specific food offered in the specified portion sizes that will meet the recommended as offered Meal Standards. Student selection of the minimum number of the offered food items determines whether the meal is reimbursable. Meal Patterns A term used to refer to food items under food-based menu planning approaches as specified for various age-grade groups. Meal Requirements (current definition) The existing set of standards used to develop menus and meals so as to implement the existing Nutrition Standards. Meal Requirements may be met through either food-based menu planning approaches or nutrient-based menu planning approaches.
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School Meals: Building Blocks for Healthy Children Meal Requirements (revised definition to correspond to recommendations in this report) A set of standards that encompasses (1) standards for menu planning (which are focused on consistency with Dietary Guidelines and the Nutrient Targets) and (2) standards for meals as selected by the student. Menu Item (current definition) Any single food or combination of foods, except condiments, served in a meal under the nutrient-based menu planning approaches (nutrient standard menu planning and assisted nutrient standard menu planning approaches). All menu items or foods offered as part of the reimbursable meal will be counted toward meeting the Nutrition Standards. National School Lunch Program The program under which participating schools operate a nonprofit lunch program, in accordance with 7 CFR Part 210. Nonreimbursable Meals Meals that are served but that cannot be claimed for reimbursement in the National School Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program, such as adult meals, à la carte meals, and second meals served to students. Nutrient-Based Menu Planning One of two existing approaches used to implement the current Nutrition Standards. It makes use of computer software to plan menus consistent with the Nutrition Standards. As established by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the approach includes the so-called nutrient standard approach and the assisted approach. Nutrient Density (of foods) The amount of a specific nutrient in a food per 100 calories of that food. Nutrient Density Target Median Intake The ratio of the gender-specific Target Median Intake to the gender-specific Estimated Energy Requirement—that is, the ratio of calorie needs to calorie requirements for a specific group. Nutrient Targets New recommended goals for the amounts of nutrients and other dietary components to be provided by school meals as offered. Nutrient Targets provide the scientific basis for developing Meal Standards. Nutrients and Other Dietary Components A term used to refer collectively to any nutrition-related substance that may be encompassed by the Nutrition Standards and Nutrient Targets. It includes protein, vitamins, minerals, calories, and substances such as fiber, cholesterol, and saturated fat. Nutrition Standards The current collective term for the nutrition goals for school meals; it encompasses nutrients and other dietary components (including food categories) that are required as well as those that are recommended.
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School Meals: Building Blocks for Healthy Children Offer Versus Serve By law, a provision that allows the student to decline a specified number of food items while still having the meal qualify for reimbursement. For lunch, offer versus serve is required in high school but is optional in middle and elementary schools. Offer versus serve is optional in all grades for breakfast. Recommended Dietary Allowances The average daily dietary nutrient intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97–98 percent) healthy individuals in a particular life-stage and gender group. Reimbursable Meal A school meal that (1) meets the standards set by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, (2) is served to an eligible student, and (3) is priced as an entire meal rather than priced on the basis of individual items. Such meals qualify for reimbursement with federal funds. Representative Baseline Menus Menus from the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment study that were selected by a prescribed process for use in comparing nutrients and costs under the current Nutrition Standards and Meal Requirements with those under the recommended Meal Requirements. School Breakfast Program The program under which participating schools operate a nonprofit breakfast program in accordance with 7 CFR Part 220. School Food Authority The governing body that is responsible for the administration of one or more schools and that has the legal authority to operate the school meal programs therein or that is otherwise approved by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture to operate the school meal programs. School Meals Initiative The School Meals Initiative includes the current regulations that define how the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and other Nutrition Standards apply to school meals. This initiative includes actions that support state agencies, school food authorities, and communities in improving school meals and encouraging children to improve their overall diets. School Meals-Target Mean Intake Statistically derived target 24-hour intakes for nutrients that were used in developing the Nutrient Targets for school meals. Schoolchildren Children in the United States who are school age (typically 5–18 years old). Side Dish(es) Currently, any menu item (except condiments) that is offered in addition to the entrée and fluid milk under the nutrient-based menu planning approaches for the school lunch or any menu item offered in addition to fluid milk for the school breakfast.
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School Meals: Building Blocks for Healthy Children State Agency State agency refers to (1) the state educational agency or (2) any other agency of the state that has been designated by the governor or other appropriate executive or legislative authority of the state and approved by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to administer the program in schools. Target Median Intake Statistically derived target intake for nutrients used to plan diets for groups. Tolerable Upper Intake Level The highest daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. Traditional Food-Based Menu Planning Approach One of the two current food-based menu planning approaches established by the U.S. Department of Agriculture that use meal patterns with food items from specific food components in quantities appropriate for established age-grade groups. Usual Nutrient Intake Data based on 24-hour recall and statistically adjusted to better estimate usual intake; for this report, reference to nutrient intake includes energy (calories).
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