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Appendix H
Uses of MyPyramid Food Groups and the MyPyramid Spreadsheet

This appendix contains a list of the foods belonging to food groups and subgroups used for the MenuDevelopment (MyPyramid) spreadsheet analyses and the recommended Meal Requirements (as adapted from the MyPyramid Food Groups), a description of the method used to design and use the MyPyramid spreadsheet to test food patterns for the Meal Requirements as offered, the initial breakfast and lunch patterns based on the MyPyramid recommended amounts of food groups, and tables containing the nutrient effects of as selected options of the nutrient content of meals, as compared to the Nutrient Targets.

LIST OF TABLES AND BOX

  • Table H-1 Foods Belonging to the Food Groups and Food Subgroups Identified in the Standards for Menu Planning

  • Table H-2 Nutrient Profiles used in the MenuDevelopment Spreadsheet

    1. Calories and Macronutrients

    2. Vitamins

    3. Minerals

  • Box H-1 Method Used to Design and Test Food Patterns for the Meal Requirements As Offered

  • Table H-3 Initial Breakfast and Lunch Patterns Based on MyPyramid Recommended Amounts of Food Groups



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Appendix H Uses of MyPyramid Food Groups and the MyPyramid Spreadsheet This appendix contains a list of the foods belonging to food groups and subgroups used for the MenuDevelopment (MyPyramid) spreadsheet analyses and the recommended Meal Requirements (as adapted from the MyPyramid Food Groups), a description of the method used to design and use the MyPyramid spreadsheet to test food patterns for the Meal Require- ments as offered, the initial breakfast and lunch patterns based on the MyPyramid recommended amounts of food groups, and tables containing the nutrient effects of as selected options of the nutrient content of meals, as compared to the Nutrient Targets. LIST OF TABLES AND BOX • Table H-1 Foods Belonging to the Food Groups and Food Sub- groups Identified in the Standards for Menu Planning • Table H-2 Nutrient Profiles used in the MenuDevelopment Spreadsheet A Calories and Macronutrients B Vitamins C Minerals • Box H-1 Method Used to Design and Test Food Patterns for the Meal Requirements As Offered • Table H-3 Initial Breakfast and Lunch Patterns Based on MyPyra- mid Recommended Amounts of Food Groups 

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0 SCHOOL MEALS • Table H-4 The Effects on 5-Day Nutrient Content of Options for Standards for Elementary and Middle School Breakfasts As Selected by Students • Table H-5 The Effects on 5-Day Nutrient Content of Options for Standards for High School Breakfasts As Selected by Students • Table H-6 The Effects on 5-Day Nutrient Content of Options for Standards for Elementary and Middle School Lunches As Selected by Students • Table H-7 The Effects on 5-Day Nutrient Content of Options for Standards for High School Lunches As Selected by Students

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 APPENDIX H TABLE H-1 Foods Belonging to the Food Groups and Food Subgroups Identified in the Standards for Menu Planning Food Groupa/Subgroup Foods Fruit Group Apples, apricots, avocado, bananas, blueberries, cantaloupe, cherries, fruit cocktail, grapefruit, grapes, honeydew, kiwi fruit, lemons, limes, mangoes, nectarines, oranges, papaya, peaches, pears, pineapple, plums, prunes, raisins, raspberries, strawberries, tangerines, watermelon 100% Fruit juice Apple, grape, grapefruit, orange Vegetable Group Dark green vegetables Bok choy, broccoli, collard greens, dark green leafy lettuce, kale, mesclun, mustard greens, romaine lettuce, spinach, turnip greens, watercress Orange vegetables Acorn squash, butternut squash, carrots, hubbard squash, pumpkin, sweet potatoes Legumes Black beans, black-eyed peas, garbanzo beans (chickpeas), green peas, kidney beans, lentils, lima beans (dried or fresh, frozen, or canned), navy beans, pinto beans, soy beans, split peas, tofu (bean curd made from soybeans), white beans Green peas and fresh, frozen, or canned (not dried) lima beans are considered part of this group as well as part of the starchy vegetable group, but should be counted in one group only. (See comment under meat and meat alternates group about counting legumes in the legumes subgroup or the meat and meat alternates group.) Starchy vegetables Corn, green peas, lima beans, potatoes Other vegetables Artichokes, asparagus, bean sprouts (cooked or canned only), beets, brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, celery, cucumbers, eggplant, green beans, green or red peppers, iceberg (head) lettuce, mushrooms, okra, onions, parsnips, tomato juice, tomatoes, turnips, vegetable juice, wax beans, zucchini Grain groupb Whole grains Amaranth, brown rice, buckwheat, bulgur (cracked wheat), millet, muesli, oatmeal, popcorn, quinoa, sorghum, triticale, whole grain barley, whole grain cornmeal, whole rye, whole wheat bread, whole wheat cereal flakes, whole wheat crackers, whole wheat pasta, whole wheat sandwich buns and rolls, wild rice Refined grains Corn flakes cereal, corn tortillas,* cornbread,*couscous,* crackers,* flour tortillas,* grits, macaroni,* noodles,* pitas,* spaghetti,* white bread, white rice, white sandwich buns and rolls continued

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 SCHOOL MEALS TABLE H-1 Continued Food Groupa/Subgroup Foods Meat and Meat Alternates Group Meatc and Poultry Beef, bison, chicken, duck, goose, ground chicken and turkey, ham, lamb, luncheon meats, pork, rabbit, turkey, veal Fish and Shellfish Anchovies, catfish, clams, cod, crab, crayfish, flounder, haddock, halibut, herring, lobster, mackerel, mussels, octopus, pollock, porgy, salmon, sardines, scallops, sea bass, shrimp, snapper, squid (calamari), swordfish, trout, tuna Eggs Chicken eggs, duck eggs Dry beans and peas Black beans, black-eyed peas, falafel, garbanzo beans (chickpeas), kidney beans, lentils, lima beans, navy beans, pinto beans, soy beans, split peas, tofu (bean curd made from soybeans), white beans Dry beans and peas and soybean products are considered part of this group as well as legumes in the vegetable group but should be counted in only one group. Nuts and seeds Almonds, cashews, hazelnuts (filberts), mixed nuts, peanut butter, peanuts, pecans, pistachios, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, walnuts Fat-free yogurt, low-fat cheese,d low-fat yogurt, tempeh, Meat Alternates texturized vegetable protein (TVP), veggie burgers Fluid Milk Fat-free (skim), low-fat (1% milk fat or less) NOTES: *Most of these products are made from refined grains. Refer to Box 7-1 in Chapter 7 to determine whether any of these foods qualify as a whole grain-rich food. aQuantity equivalents for each food group are: • Fruit and vegetables—The following each count as 1 cup (2 servings) of fruits or veg- etables: 1 cup cut-up raw or cooked fruit or vegetable, 1 cup fruit or vegetable juice, 2 cups leafy salad greens. • Grains—The following count as 1 ounce-equivalent (1 serving) of grains: ½ cup cooked rice, pasta, or cooked cereal; 1 ounce dry pasta or rice; 1 slice bread; 1 small muffin (1 oz); 1 cup ready-to-eat cereal flakes. • Meat/Meat alternates—The following each count as 1 ounce-equivalent: 1 ounce lean meat, poultry, or fish; 1 egg; ¼ cup cooked dry beans or tofu; 1 tablespoon peanut butter; ½ ounce nuts of seeds; 1 ounce cheese; 4 ounces yogurt. • Fluid milk—1 cup. bSome grain products contain significant amounts of bran. Bran provides fiber, which is important for health. However, products with added bran or bran alone (e.g., oat bran) are not necessarily whole grain products. cAlthough meats that are preserved by smoking, curing, or salting, or by the addition of preservatives are sometimes lean, they usually are very high in sodium. Because of their sodium content and because the consumption of such processed meats, especially processed red meats, has been linked with an increased risk of colorectal cancer in adults (WCRF/AICR, 2007), less frequent use of even the low-fat versions of these meats may be advisable. dHigher fat cheeses such as natural cheddar may be used if specifications for saturated fat and calories are not exceeded. SOURCE: Adapted from USDA, 2008.

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TABLE H-2A Nutrient Profiles used in MenuDevelopment Spreadsheets: Calories and Macronutrients Food Groups and Calories, Protein, CHO, Total fat, Sat. fat, Mono. fat, Poly. fat, Linoleic Dietary α-Linolenic, Chol., Subgroups Amt kcal g g g g g g acid, g g mg fiber, g Fruits ½ cup 59.0 0.7 14.7 0.20 0.03 0.02 0.05 0.03 0.01 0 1.1 Vegetable Subgroups Dark-green ½ cup 20.0 1.6 3.9 0.20 0.04 0.02 0.10 0.03 0.07 0 2.1 Orange ½ cup 32.0 0.7 7.4 0.10 0.03 0.01 0.08 0.07 0 0 2.1 Dry Beans ½ cup 114.0 8.0 19.2 1.00 0.16 0.19 0.49 0.38 0.12 0 6.0 Starchy ½ cup 73.0 1.7 16.8 0.20 0.03 0.03 0.08 0.07 0.01 0 1.7 Other ½ cup 18.0 0.9 3.9 0.20 0.03 0.02 0.08 0.06 0.02 0 1.1 Grain Subgroups Whole 1 oz eq 77.0 2.4 15.6 1.10 0.20 0.33 0.38 0.40 0.02 0.3 2.4 Refined 1 oz eq 83.0 2.2 15.8 1.10 0.23 0.39 0.35 0.32 0.03 0.9 0.7 Meat and Beans 1 oz eq 54.0 6.9 0.4 2.60 0.80 1.09 0.44 0.37 0.02 34.8 0.1 Cheesea* 1 oz 79.0 7.6 0.6 5.12 3.25 1.41 0.21 0.16 0.04 16.0 0 Yogurtb* 4 oz 116.0 5.4 23.3 0.24 0.15 0.06 0.02 0.00 0.00 2.0 0 Milk 1 cup 83.0 8.3 12.2 0.20 0.29 0.12 0.02 0.01 0 5.0 0 Oils 1g 8.4 0 0 0.95 0.14 0.33 0.43 0.40 0.04 0 0 Added Sugars 1 tsp 16.0 0 4.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Solid Fats 1g 7.6 0 0 0.85 0.36 0.33 0.13 0.11 0.014 1.15 0 

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TABLE H-2B Nutrient Profiles used in MenuDevelopment Spreadsheets: Vitamins  Food Groups and Vit. C, Vit. E, Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Folate, Vit. A, µg Vit. B6, Vit. B12, Subgroups Amt RAE mg mg mg mg mg mg mg αT µg DFE Fruits ½ cup 16.0 25.0 0.20 0.06 0.03 0.3 0.09 0.09 0.09 Vegetable Subgroups Dark-green ½ cup 167.0 30.0 1.00 0.05 0.1 0.4 0.13 0.13 0.13 Orange ½ cup 554.0 5.0 0.60 0.05 0.04 0.6 0.12 0.12 0.12 Dry Beans ½ cup 0.0 0 0.60 0.14 0.05 0.4 0.12 0.12 0.12 Starchy ½ cup 2.0 6.0 0 0.09 0.03 1.1 0.21 0.21 0.21 Other ½ cup 13.0 9.0 0.40 0.04 0.04 0.5 0.08 0.08 0.08 Grain Subgroups Whole 1 oz eq 26.0 1.0 0.10 0.13 0.11 1.4 0.14 0.14 0.14 Refined 1 oz eq 5.0 0 0.10 0.14 0.1 1.4 0.06 0.06 0.06 Meat and Beans 1 oz eq 17.0 0 0.20 0.06 0.07 1.6 0.09 0.09 0.09 Cheesea* 1 oz 42.0 0 0.04 0.01 0.08 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 Yogurtb* 4 oz 2.0 0.9 0.07 0.05 0.22 0.12 0.05 0.05 0.05 Milk 1 cup 142.0c* 0 0 0.11 0.45 0.2 0 0 0 Oils 1 g 1.1 0 0.14 0 0 0 0 0 0 Added Sugars 1 tsp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Solid Fats 1 g 4.5 0 0.04 0 0 0 0 0 0

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TABLE H-2C Nutrient Profiles used in MenuDevelopment Spreadsheets: Minerals Food Groups and Iron, Magnesium, Zinc, Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium, Subgroups Amt mg mg mg mg mg mg mg Fruits ½ cup 0.2 12.0 0.1 11.0 17.0 213.0 3.0 Vegetable Subgroups Dark-green ½ cup 1.0 25.0 0.3 50.0 39.0 229.0 30.0 Orange ½ cup 0.3 9.0 0.2 23.0 25.0 214.0 41.0 Dry Beans ½ cup 2.3 46.0 1.0 57.0 119.0 363.0 3.0 Starchy ½ cup 0.4 19.0 0.3 8.0 43.0 286.0 5.0 Other ½ cup 0.6 10.0 0.2 21.0 21.0 162.0 57.0 Grain Subgroups Whole 1 oz eq 1.8 27.0 0.9 26.0 85.0 91.0 87.0 Refined 1 oz eq 1.2 7.0 0.2 30.0 33.0 29.0 153.0 Meat and Beans 1 oz eq 0.5 8.0 1.0 6.0 63.0 91.0 93.0 Cheesea* 1 oz 0.0 10.0 1.2 253.0 163.0 26.0 203.0 Yogurtb* 4 oz 0.1 18.0 0.9 186.0 146.0 238.0 71.0 Milk 1 cup 0.1 27.0 1.0 306.0 247.0 382.0 103.0 Oils 1 g 0 0 0 0 0 0 13.0 Added Sugars 1 tsp 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Solid Fats 1 g 0 0 0 0.1 0.1 0.2 1.6 NOTES: amt = amount; αT = α-tocopherol; DFE = dietary folate equivalent; g = gram; kcal = calories; mg = milligram; oz eq = ounce equivalent; RAE = retinol activity equivalent; µg = microgram. Nutrient content for each food group and subgroup is the amount in ½ cup or 1 ounce equivalents. aNutrient values for cheese represent USDA Commodity reduced-fat cheddar cheese from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21 (USDA/ARS, 2008). bNutrient values for yogurt based on the nutrient content of nonfat fruit yogurt from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Refer- ence, Release 21 (USDA/ARS, 2008). cThe value for vitamin A is based on the nutrient content of 1% milk with added vitamin A from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21 (USDA/ARS, 2008). SOURCES: Marcoe et al., 2006; USDA/ARS, 2004; *USDA/ARS, 2008. 

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 SCHOOL MEALS BOX H-1 Method Used to Design and Test Food Patterns for the Meal Requirements As Offered Nutrient Composites These spreadsheets primarily use the 2005 MyPyramid nutrient composites (Marcoe et al., 2006) to estimate the energy and nutrient content that would be provided by possible meal patterns for breakfast and lunch. In developing the spreadsheet, staff modified the nutrient composites and/or food groups as listed below: 1. The vitamin A content for the milk group is the value for low-fat (vitamin A-fortified) milk rather than whole milk. The original composite used the vitamin A value for whole milk. 2. Separate rows were added for low-fat cheese and low-fat flavored yogurt. Although cheese and yogurt are part of the milk group in MyPyramid, the nutrient composite reflects the nutrient content of fat-free milk. A further complication was that cheese and yogurt are counted as members of the meat and meat alter- nates group in current specifications for school meals. Having separate rows in the spreadsheet for these two dairy foods enabled the committee to obtain quick nutrient estimates for a variety of food patterns that include these dairy foods. Of interest was the estimated nutrient content of patterns that involve partial and complete substitution of the dairy foods for foods in the MyPyramid meat and beans group. Food Pattern Development and Testing To determine initial breakfast and lunch patterns based on MyPyramid, the method was to multiply the amount for each food group specified by MyPyramid (for each calorie level—1,800, 2,000, and 2,400) by the midpoint of the calorie range for the meal (21.5% for breakfast, 32% for lunch), as shown below in Table H-3. To account for vegetable subgroups that are specified in MyPyramid on a weekly rather than a daily basis, the subgroup calculated the amounts as cups per 5-day school week at lunch. Because it is uncommon for a majority of U.S. schoolchildren to consume vegetables at breakfast (with a few exceptions, such as hash-brown potatoes), the committee agreed to exclude vegetables from the breakfast patterns that were tested. The amounts shown in Table H-3 were adjusted up or down if necessary to achieve practical serving amounts. For example, instead of specifying 0.8 cups of vegetable per day, 3⁄4 cup or 1 cup would be specified. At breakfast, since vegetables had been omitted, the committee tested pat- terns with and without additional fruit to examine the differences in the content of calories, some vitamins, potassium, and fiber. Tentative allocations were made for added sugars and saturated fat consider- ing the number of calories remaining (discretionary calories) and the desire to allow for some low-fat (1%) milk and flavored fat-free milk. (The added sugars and/or the fat in flavored low-fat yogurt and low-fat cheese are included in the composites for those foods.) These allocations were made for test purposes only. They were not intended to be part of the food pattern.

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TABLE H-3 Initial Breakfast and Lunch Patterns Based on MyPyramid Amounts of Food Groups 1,800 Calories 2,000 Calories 2,400 Calories Initial Initial Initial Initial Initial Initial MyPyramid Breakfast Lunch MyPyramid Breakfast Lunch MyPyramid Breakfast Lunch Food Amount* Patterna Patterna Amount* Patterna Patterna Amount* Patterna Patterna Fruits (c/d) 1.5 0.3 0.5 2.0 0.4 0.6 2.0 0.4 0.6 Vegetables (c/d) 2.5 0.5 0.8 2.5 0.5 0.8 3.0 0.6 1.0 Dark green (c/wk) 3.0 0.5b 0.7b 3.0 0.5b 0.7b 3.0 0.5b 0.7b Orange (c/wk) 2.0 0.3b 0.5b 2.0 0.3b 0.5b 2.0 0.3b 0.5b Legumes (c/wk) 3.0 0.5b 0.7b 3.0 0.5b 0.7b 3.0 0.5b 0.7b Starchy (c/wk) 3.0 0.5b 0.7b 3.0 0.5b 0.7b 6.0 0.9b 1.4b Other (c/wk) 6.5 1.0b 1.5b 6.5 1.0b 1.5b 7.0 1.1b 1.6b Grains (oz eq/d) 6.0 1.3 1.9 6.0 1.3b 1.9b 8.0 1.7b 2.6b Refined (oz eq/d) 3.0 0.6 1.0 3.0 0.6 1.0 4.0 0.9 1.3 Whole (oz eq/d) 3.0 0.6 1.0 3.0 0.6 1.0 4.0 0.9 1.3 Meats and Beans (oz eq/d) 5.0 1.1 1.6 5.5 1.2 1.8 6.5 1.4 2.1 Milk (c/d) 3.0 0.6 1.0 3.0 0.6 1.0 3.0 0.6 1.0 Oils (g/d) 24 5.2 7.7 27 5.8 8.6 31 6.7 9.9 Discretionary Calories (kcal/d) 195 41.9 62.4 267 57.4 85.4 362 77.8 115.8 NOTES: c/d = cups/day; c/wk = cups/week; g/d = grams/day; kcal/d = kilocalories/day; oz eq/d = ounce equivalents/day. aInitial breakfast and lunch patterns are based on 21.5% and 32% of the MyPyramid recommended amount, respectively. bVegetable subgroups at breakfast and lunch are calculated as cups per 5-day school week at lunch using [(MyPyramid amount/7)*5*0.215] and [(MyPyramid amount/7)*5*0.32], respectively. SOURCE: *Britten et al., 2006. 

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TABLE H-4 The Effects on 5-Day Nutrient Content of Options for Standards for Elementary and Middle School  Breakfasts As Selected by Students Proposed Pattern with: 80% of Elementary Middle 80% of Middle Only 1 Fruit No Milk & Only Nutrient Nutrient Elem Nutr Nutr No Svg per Day 1 Fruit Svg per No Targets Targets Targets Targets Milk (2.5 c/wk) Day (2.5 c/wk) Fruit Calories (kcal) 350–500 400–550 NA NA 396 420 337 361 Protein (g) 10.2 21.6 8.2 17.3 13 21 12 20 Linoleic acid (g) 2.2 2.5 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.1 0.21 0.25 0.17 0.20 0.20 0.19 0.19 0.18 α-Linolenic (g) Cholesterol (mg) NA NA 38 43 38 43 < 65 < 65 Dietary fiber (g) 5.7 6.2 4.6 5.0 5.4 4.3 4.3 3.2 129 162 103 130 217 201 91 75 Vitamin A (µg RAE) Vitamin C (mg) 16 20 13 16 51 26 26 1.0 2.0 2.7 1.6 2.2 1.2 1.0 1.0 0.8 Vitamin E (mg αT) Thiamin (mg) 0.20 0.30 0.16 0.24 0.45 0.50 0.39 0.44 Riboflavin (mg) 0.31 0.41 0.25 0.33 0.34 0.76 0.31 0.73 Niacin (mg) 3.2 4.0 2.6 3.2 5.0 4.9 4.7 4.6 0.30 0.40 0.24 0.32 0.47 0.38 0.38 0.29 Vitamin B6 (mg) 91 114 73 91 162 150 138 126 Folate (µg DFE) 0.8 0.9 0.6 0.7 0.9 2.2 0.9 2.2 Vitamin B12 (µg) Calcium (mg) 223 296 178 237 379 368 84 73 Phosphorus (mg) 242 362 194 290 215 445 198 428 Magnesium (mg) 49 66 39 53 66 81 54 69 Iron (mg) 2.3 3.5 1.8 2.8 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6 Zinc (mg) 2.0 2.5 1.6 2.0 2.3 3.2 2.2 3.1 Sodium (mg) NA NA 368 468* 365 465* ≤ 430 ≤ 470 Potassium (mg) 909 1,023 727 818 637 806 424 593 % Kcal from Total Fat 25–35% 25–35% NA NA 20 19 23 21 % Kcal from Sat. Fat NA NA 5 5 6 6 < 10% < 10% NOTES: Bold italic font indicates values that are > 20% below the Nutrient Targets for elementary and middle school. Bold font indicates values that are > 20% below the Nutrient Targets for middle school. An asterisk indicates values that exceed the maximum Nutrient Target for elementary school. αT = α-tocopherol; c = cup; DFE = dietary folate equivalent; elem = elementary; g = gram; kcal = calories; mg = milligram; NA = not ap- plicable; Nutr = Nutrient; RAE = retinol activity equivalent; svg = serving; µg = microgram; w = week.

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TABLE H-5 The Effects on 5-Day Nutrient Content of Options for Standards for High School Breakfasts As Selected by Students Proposed Pattern with: 80% of High Only 1 Fruit No Milk & Only 1 High School School Nutrient No Svg per Day Fruit Svg per Day No Nutrient Targets Targets Milk (2.5 c/wk) (2.5 c/wk) Fruit Calories (kcal) 450–600 NA 491 515 432 456 Protein (g) 21.8 17.4 20 27 19 27 Linoleic acid (g) 3.0 2.4 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 0.30 0.24 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.32 α-Linolenic (g) Cholesterol (mg) NA 73* 78* 73* 78* < 65 Dietary fiber (g) 7.2 5.8 5.5 4.4 4.4 3.3 186 149 112 238 96 222 Vitamin A (µg RAE) Vitamin C (mg) 26 21 51 26 26 1.0 3.7 3.0 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.4 Vitamin E (mg αT) Thiamin (mg) 0.4 0.32 0.51 0.56 0.45 0.50 Riboflavin (mg) 0.5 0.36 0.41 0.83 0.38 0.80 Niacin (mg) 4.9 3.9 6.6 6.5 6.3 6.2 0.7 0.56 0.56 0.47 0.47 0.38 Vitamin B6 (mg) 138 110 167 155 143 131 Folate (µg DFE) 1.1 0.9 1.5 2.8 1.5 2.8 Vitamin B12 (µg) Calcium (mg) 323 258 90 385 79 374 Phosphorus (mg) 384 307 278 508 261 491 Magnesium (mg) 99 79 74 89 62 77 Iron (mg) 4.0 3.2 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.1 Zinc (mg) 2.9 2.3 3.3 4.2 3.2 4.1 Sodium (mg) NA 500 600* 497 597* ≤ 500 Potassium (mg) 1169 935 728 897 515 684 % Kcal from Total Fat 25–35% NA 26 25 29 28 % Kcal from Sat. Fat NA 6 7 7 7 < 10% NOTES: Bold font indicates values that are > 20% below the Nutrient Targets for high school. An asterisk indicates values that exceed the maximum Nutrient Target. αT = α-tocopherol; c = cup; DFE = dietary folate equivalent; g = gram; kcal = calories; mg = milligram; NA = not applicable; RAE = retinol activity equivalent; svg = serving; µg = microgram; w = week. 

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TABLE H-6 The Effects on 5-Day Nutrient Content of Options for Standards for Elementary and Middle School 0 Lunches As Selected by Students Proposed Pattern with Omit Vegetables Servings Prelim Prelim 80% of 80% of Omit Omit Omit Omit Dark Elem Middle Elem Middle Dark Orange Legume Green and Nutr Nutr Nutr Nutr Green (3.25 (3.25 Orange Targets Targets Targets Targets No Milk No Vegs (3.25 c/w) c/w) c/w) (2.75 c/w) Calories (kcal) 550–650 600–700 544 556 623 621 604 617 Protein (g) 15.2 32.2 12.2 25.8 22.3 27.4 30.3 30.5 29.0 30.1 Linoleic acid (g) 3.3 3.6 2.6 2.9 5.3 5.1 5.3 5.3 5.2 5.3 0.31 0.36 0.25 0.29 0.53 0.48 0.51 0.53 0.50 0.51 α-Linolenic (g) Cholesterol (mg) NA NA 75 80 80 80 80 80 < 96 < 96 Dietary fiber (g) 8.5 9.3 6.8 7.4 7.7 7.3 7.3 6.8 4.4 6.5 192 241 154 193 259 250 368 291 401 257 Vitamin A (µg RAE) Vitamin C (mg) 24 30 19 24 40 26 34 39 40 33 3.0 4.0 2.4 3.2 2.7 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.4 2.1 Vitamin E (mg αT) Thiamin (mg) 0.40 0.50 0.32 0.40 0.55 0.56 0.65 0.65 0.64 0.64 Riboflavin (mg) 0.46 0.61 0.37 0.49 0.45 0.83 0.88 0.89 0.89 0.87 Niacin (mg) 4.7 6.0 3.8 4.8 7.3 6.5 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.3 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 Vitamin B6 (mg) 136 169 109 135 196 155 192 206 186 190 Folate (µg DFE) 1.2 1.3 0.96 1.04 1.50 2.80 2.80 2.80 2.80 2.80 Vitamin B12 (µg) Calcium (mg) 332 440 266 352 385 415 421 414 411 119 Phosphorus (mg) 361 538 289 430 326 508 565 568 549 560 Magnesium (mg) 72 98 58 78 91 89 113 116 108 111 Iron (mg) 3.4 5.2 2.7 4.2 5.4 4.3 5.3 5.4 5.0 5.2 Zinc (mg) 2.9 3.7 2.3 3.0 3.7 4.2 4.7 4.7 4.5 4.6 Sodium (mg) NA NA 585 642* 682* 680* 687* 674* ≤ 640 ≤ 710 Potassium (mg) 1353 1523 1082 1218 1209 1212 1182 1166 872 898 % Kcal from Total Fat 25–35% 25–35% NA NA 32 30 28 28 28 28 % Kcal from Sat. Fat NA NA 7 8 7 7 7 7 < 10% < 10%

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No Milk and No Whole Grains and Omit Omit Omit Omit Dark Green Omit Dark Omit Omit Omit Dark Green Dark Green Orange Legume and Orange Green Orange Legume and Orange Calories (kcal) 540 538 521 534 546 544 527 540 Protein (g) 22.0 22.2 20.7 21.8 27.9 28.1 26.6 27.7 Linoleic acid (g) 5.3 5.3 5.2 5.3 4.9 4.9 4.8 4.9 0.51 0.53 0.50 0.51 0.49 0.51 0.48 0.49 α-Linolenic (g) Cholesterol (mg) 75 75 75 75 80 80 80 80 Dietary fiber (g) 7.3 7.3 6.8 6.5 4.9 4.9 4.1 4.4 226 259 342 265 375 231 149 115 Vitamin A (µg RAE) Vitamin C (mg) 34 39 40 33 33 38 39 32 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.3 Vitamin E (mg αT) Thiamin (mg) 0.54 0.54 0.53 0.53 0.52 0.52 0.51 0.51 Riboflavin (mg) 0.43 0.44 0.44 0.42 0.77 0.78 0.78 0.76 Niacin (mg) 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.1 6.0 6.0 6.0 5.9 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 Vitamin B6 (mg) 180 194 174 178 142 156 136 140 Folate (µg DFE) 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 Vitamin B12 (µg) Calcium (mg) 389 395 388 385 109 115 108 105 Phosphorus (mg) 318 321 302 313 480 483 464 475 Magnesium (mg) 86 89 81 84 86 89 81 84 Iron (mg) 5.2 5.3 4.9 5.1 3.5 3.6 3.2 3.4 Zinc (mg) 3.7 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.8 3.8 3.6 3.7 Sodium (mg) 579 577 584 571 595 593 600 587 Potassium (mg) 1118 1121 1091 827 830 800 784 1075 % Kcal from Total Fat 32 32 33 32 30 30 31 30 % Kcal from Sat. Fat 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 NOTES: Bold italic font indicates values that are > 20% below the preliminary Nutrient Targets for elementary and middle school. Bold font indicates values that are > 20% below the preliminary Nutrient Targets for middle school. An asterisk indicates values that exceed the maximum Nutrient Target for elementary school. αT = α-tocopherol; c = cup; DFE = dietary folate equivalent; elem = elementary; g = gram; kcal = calories; mg = mil-  ligram; NA = not applicable; Nutr = Nutrient; RAE = retinol activity equivalent; svg = serving; µg = microgram; w = week.

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TABLE H-7 The Effects on 5-Day Nutrient Content of Options for Standards for High School Lunches As Selected  by Students Proposed Pattern with Omit Vegetables Servings 80% of Omit Omit Omit Omit Nutrient H.S. Nutr Dark Green Orange Legume Dark Green and Targets Targets No Milk No Vegs (4.5 c/wk) (4.5 c/wk) (4.5 c/wk) Orange (4 c/wk) Calories (kcal) 750–850 NA 706 709 785 783 766 756 Protein (g) 32.5 26.0 27.6 32.3 35.6 35.8 34.3 33.8 Linoleic acid (g) 4.5 3.6 6.9 6.7 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.8 0.45 0.36 0.69 0.63 0.68 0.69 0.67 0.65 α-Linolenic (g) Cholesterol (mg) NA 90 95 95 95 95 95 < 96 Dietary fiber (g) 10.7 8.6 10.5 6.6 10.0 10.0 9.3 8.4 277 222 303 287 412 335 445 301 Vitamin A (µg RAE) Vitamin C (mg) 39 31.2 70 51 64 69 70 63 5.4 4.3 3.7 2.8 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.2 Vitamin E (mg αT) Thiamin (mg) 0.60 0.48 0.74 0.72 0.84 0.84 0.82 0.80 Riboflavin (mg) 0.67 0.54 0.59 0.95 1.02 1.03 1.03 1.00 Niacin (mg) 7.3 5.8 9.3 8.3 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.2 0.6 0.5 0.9 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 Vitamin B6 (mg) 205 164 261 213 257 271 251 232 Folate (µg DFE) 1.6 1.3 1.8 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 Vitamin B12 (µg) Calcium (mg) 481 385 159 415 455 461 454 439 Phosphorus (mg) 572 458 419 591 658 661 642 629 Magnesium (mg) 147 118 123 116 145 148 141 134 Iron (mg) 5.9 4.7 7.0 5.7 6.9 7.1 6.7 6.4 Zinc (mg) 4.3 3.4 4.7 5.1 5.7 5.7 5.5 5.4 Sodium (mg) NA 758* 787* 855* 853* 860* 846* ≤ 740 Potassium (mg) 1740 1392 1245 1189 1581 1584 1554 1466 % Kcal from Total Fat 25-35% NA 30 30 28 28 28 28 % Kcal from Sat. Fat NA 7 7 7 7 7 7 < 10%

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No Milk and No Whole Grains and Omit Omit Omit Omit Dark Green Omit Omit Omit Omit Dark Green Dark Green Orange Legume and Orange Dark Green Orange Legume and Orange Calories (kcal) 702 700 683 696 677 675 659 671 Protein (g) 27.3 27.5 26.0 27.1 32.2 32.4 30.9 32.1 Linoleic acid (g) 6.9 6.9 6.8 6.9 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.3 0.68 0.69 0.67 0.68 0.65 0.66 0.64 0.65 α-Linolenic (g) Cholesterol (mg) 90 90 90 90 94 94 94 94 Dietary fiber (g) 10.0 10.0 9.3 9.6 6.7 6.7 5.9 6.3 270 193 303 159 376 298 409 265 Vitamin A (µg RAE) Vitamin C (mg) 64 69 70 63 62 67 68 61 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.2 Vitamin E (mg αT) Thiamin (mg) 0.73 0.73 0.71 0.72 0.66 0.66 0.64 0.65 Riboflavin (mg) 0.57 0.58 0.58 0.56 0.87 0.88 0.88 0.86 Niacin (mg) 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.1 7.5 7.4 7.5 7.3 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 Vitamin B6 (mg) 245 259 239 243 187 201 181 185 Folate (µg DFE) 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 Vitamin B12 (µg) Calcium (mg) 149 155 148 145 419 424 418 414 Phosphorus (mg) 411 414 395 406 539 542 523 534 Magnesium (mg) 118 121 114 116 107 110 103 105 Iron (mg) 6.8 7.0 6.6 6.8 4.4 4.6 4.2 4.4 Zinc (mg) 4.7 4.7 4.5 4.6 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.4 Sodium (mg) 752* 750* 757* 744* 733 731 738 725 Potassium (mg) 1199 1202 1172 1156 1454 1457 1427 1411 % Kcal from Total Fat 31 31 31 31 30 30 31 30 % Kcal from Sat. Fat 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 NOTES: Bold font indicates values that are > 20% below the Nutrient Targets for high school. An asterisk indicates values that exceed the maximum Nutrient Targets for high school. αT = α-tocopherol; c = cup; DFE = dietary folate equivalent; g = gram; kcal = calories; mg = milligram; NA = not applicable; Nutr = Nutrient; RAE = retinol activity equivalent; svg = serving; µg = microgram; w = week. 

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