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Appendix P
Comparison of Dietary Guidelines for Americans with Recommended Meal Requirements

LIST OF TABLES

  • Table P-1 Summary of 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and Recommendations for School Meals that Address Increasing Conformity of Children’s Diets to the Guidelines



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Appendix P Comparison of Dietary Guidelines for Americans with Recommended Meal Requirements LIST OF TABLES • Table P-1 Summary of 00 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and Recommendations for School Meals that Address Increasing Conformity of Children’s Diets to the Guidelines 

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 SCHOOL MEALS TABLE P-1 Summary of 00 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and Recommendations for School Meals that Address Increasing Conformity of Children’s Diets to the Guidelines Guidelinea (specific recommendations for Recommendations that Address Increasing Alignment with Guidelineb children and adolescents are also noted) Adequate Nutrients within Calorie Needs • Consume a variety of nutrient-dense • Milk limited to plain and flavored foods and beverages within and among the fat-free and low-fat milk (no more than basic food groups while choosing foods that 1% milk fat). limit the intake of saturated and trans fats, • Increased fruits at breakfast and cholesterol, added sugars, salt, and alcohol. vegetables at lunch. • Meet recommended intakes within • Dark green and orange vegetables energy needs by adopting a balanced eating and legumes on menu each week; starchy pattern, such as the USDA Food Guide or the vegetables served less often. DASH Eating Plan. • More whole grain-rich food products, fewer refined grain products. • Nearly all entrées, cheese, and grain products low in saturated fat. • Lower sodium content of meals. • Trans fats limited to as near zero as possible by requiring that processed foods have a zero value on the label. • Minimum and maximum energy (calorie) standards for school meals. • Menu pattern based largely on the USDA food guide (MyPyramid). Weight Management • To maintain body weight in a healthy • Both minimum and maximum range, balance calories from foods and calorie levels are specified for school beverages with calories expended. meals, based on best evidence regarding energy needs for children. Oerweight children. Reduce the rate of • School meal programs are not body weight gain while allowing growth and intended for the treatment of established development. Consult a healthcare provider overweight or obesity; rather, they are to before placing a child on a weight-reduction provide foods and nutrients to support a diet. healthy, active lifestyle. Physical Activity Children and adolescents. Engage in at least Outside the scope of this committee’s 60 minutes of physical activity on most, charge, the value of physical activity in the preferably all, days of the week. school setting is recognized, particularly prior to lunch.

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 APPENDIX P TABLE P-1 Continued Guidelinea (specific recommendations for Recommendations that Address Increasing Alignment with Guidelineb children and adolescents are also noted) Food Groups to Encourage • Consume a sufficient amount of fruits • One cup fruit (two servings) for and vegetables while staying within energy breakfast and ½ to 1 cup fruit at lunch needs. Two cups of fruit and 2½ cups of (the higher amount for high school). vegetables per day are recommended for a • At least ¾ cup vegetables at lunch. reference 2,000-calorie intake, with higher or • Vegetables for school lunch to lower amounts depending on the calorie level. include at least ½ cup of dark green, • Choose a variety of fruits and yellow/orange, and legumes over the vegetables each day. In particular, select from school week. Starchy vegetables limited to all five vegetable subgroups (dark green, 1 cup per school week. orange, legumes, starchy vegetables, and other • 7–10 servings grain products vegetables) several times a week. (depending on age-grade level) at • Consume 3 or more ounce-equivalents breakfast per week and 9–13 servings/ of whole-grain products per day, with the week at lunch (depending on age-grade rest of the recommended grains coming from level), at least half of which must be enriched or whole-grain products. In general, whole grain-rich (see Box 7-1). at least half the grains should come from • One cup milk at school breakfast whole grains. and 1 cup at lunch, all of which must be • Consume 3 cups per day of fat-free or plain or flavored nonfat or plain low fat. low-fat milk or equivalent milk products. Additional low-fat or fat-free yogurt or reduced-fat, low-fat, or fat-free cheese Children and adolescents. Consume whole- may be used as an alternate for meat or grain products often; at least half the grains beans in menu planning. should be whole grains. Children ages • Recommendations contribute to 2–8 years should consume 2 cups per day of meeting the Dietary Guidelines for whole fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk grain products and for milk for children. products. Children 9 years of age and older should consume 3 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products. continued

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 SCHOOL MEALS TABLE P-1 Continued Guidelinea (specific recommendations for Recommendations that Address Increasing Alignment with Guidelineb children and adolescents are also noted) Fats • Saturated fat limited to < 10% of • Consume less than 10 percent of calories from saturated fatty acids and less calories for breakfast and lunch; trans than 300 mg/day of cholesterol, and keep trans fats limited by including only processed fatty acid consumption as low as possible. products labeled with zero trans fat. • Keep total fat intake between 20 • Emphasis on low-fat, fat-free, and and 35 percent of calories, with most fats lean choices for menu planning; restriction coming from sources of polyunsaturated and of milk and yogurt to nonfat or 1% fat monounsaturated fatty acids, such as fish, nuts, varieties. and vegetable oils. • Maximum levels of calories and • When selecting and preparing meat, saturated fat help keep total fat content poultry, dry beans, and milk or milk products, below 35% of calories. make choices that are lean, low-fat, or fat-free. • The inclusion of unsaturated • Limit intake of fats and oils high in vegetable oils is encouraged within calorie saturated and/or trans fatty acids, and choose limits. products low in such fats and oils. • Recommendations are consistent with Dietary Guidelines for children aged Children and adolescents. Keep total fat 4 to 18 years. intake between 25 and 35 percent of calories • No identifiable trans fat. for children and adolescents 4–18 years of age, with most fats coming from sources of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, such as fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. Carbohydrates • Choose fiber-rich fruits, vegetables, and • Recommended menus have whole grains often. increased fruits, vegetables, and whole • Choose and prepare foods and grains. beverages with little added sugars or caloric • The menu pattern and the sweeteners. maximum calorie level minimize the use of • Reduce the incidence of dental caries by added sugars. practicing good oral hygiene and consuming • Applicable primarily to snacking sugar- and starch-containing foods and rather than to school meals. beverages less frequently. Sodium and Potassium • Consume less than 2,300 mg • Sodium standards are set at (approximately 1 tsp of salt) of sodium per recommended levels based on the day. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for the • Choose and prepare foods with little age-grade group; recognition is given that salt. At the same time, consume potassium-rich implementation of this standard will be foods, such as fruits and vegetables. gradual and over a relatively long term. • Fruits and vegetables are increased in the recommended standards for menu planning; sodium is addressed with gradual but steady reduction to recommended levels. Alcoholic Beverages Not applicable for children.

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 APPENDIX P TABLE P-1 Continued Guidelinea (specific recommendations for Recommendations that Address Increasing Alignment with Guidelineb children and adolescents are also noted) Food Safety Already addressed in school food service standards; not within the scope of this committee’s charge. Additional Key Recommendations for Specific None of these products is recommended. Groups: Infants and young children, pregnant Food list in Table J-2 specifies that beans women, older adults, and those who are sprouts are to be cooked or canned only. immunocompromised. Do not eat or drink raw (unpasteurized) milk or any products made from unpasteurized milk, raw or partially cooked eggs or foods containing raw eggs, raw or undercooked meat and poultry, raw or undercooked fish or shellfish, unpasteurized juices, and raw sprouts. aFromthe Executive Summary of the 00 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (HHS/USDA, 2005). bQuantitative recommendations are to be met on average over 5-day menu plans.

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