TABLE 2-1 Results of Surveys of American Participants in COBASE Program (percent)

Outcome of exchange program

Survey year

FY 1998

FY 1999

FY 2000

Partners still in contact




American had publication or presentation based on program




American applied for follow-on grant




American received follow-on grant




NOTE: Surveys were conducted one year after completion of individual programs. Although these data cover exchanges involving countries throughout Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, the results were comparable for exchanges involving only Eastern European scientists.

SOURCE: COBASE program data. Reprinted from Schweitzer, Glenn E. 2004. Scientists, Engineers, and Track-Two Diplomacy: A Half-Century of U.S.-Russian Interacademy Cooperation. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

of scientists on both sides of the ocean to participate. As the region opened its remaining closed doors during the early 1990s, the contacts being established through the program helped many isolated Eastern European scientists link more fully into the international scientific community. Then, with the expansion of other international programs, particularly those sponsored by the European Union, the impact of the smaller efforts of COBASE began to diminish.

Finally, in the early 2000s, NSF terminated its regionally oriented activities as it decided to deemphasize programs targeted on specific geographical regions as previously noted. The evaluations by NSF of the effectiveness of the interacademy program were at the highest level. But NSF apparently considered that its resources could be more effectively used in a different manner without the need for the NAS as an intermediary.

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