from infectious disease outbreaks could be created as a public-private partnership involving trade and tourism stakeholders, and structured as a trust fund or insurance product. “In summary,” Bell writes, “the public-health sector needs help in implementing the IHR; recognition of their importance to trade security can provide the basis for engagement of trade and tourism stakeholders.”

Several important collaborations among nongovernmental organizations support infectious disease surveillance and response efforts and the larger goal of global health security. In his contribution to this chapter, Ottorino Cosivi of the World Health Organization (WHO) discusses that organization’s partnerships with a broad range of organizations; the most significant of these are the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), which, together with the WHO, are referred to as “the three sisters.” He describes a variety of interagency collaborations to promote the early detection and control of disease at the animal-human interface, including the aforementioned Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN), the Global Early Warning and Response System for Major Animal Diseases, Including Zoonoses (GLEWS), the International Food Safety Authorities Network (INFOSAN), and the Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Program.

“In order to address the threat of emerging zoonotic diseases, we must change the paradigm for disease prevention and focus on disease surveillance and control in animals,” Cosivi observes. This is the reasoning behind the One World, One Health strategic framework, which aims to prevent and to prepare for a range of potential global health risks through collaboration at the intersection of animal and human health. Cosivi discusses the development of this framework, which evolved from lessons learned in efforts to address the threat of pandemic avian influenza and its current activities. Partners in the One World, One Health® framework currently include the WHO, FAO, OIE, the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and the World Bank.

A representative of another of the “three sisters,” workshop speaker Alejandro Thiermann of the OIE discusses global surveillance and health security from the perspective of animal health in this chapter’s third essay. Focusing on the obligation of OIE member nations to report cases of known zoonotic disease threats, as well as of any “emerging disease with significant morbidity or mortality, or zoonotic potential,” Thiermann compares and contrasts the OIE’s disease surveillance program with its human-health counterpart, the IHR 2005. He describes the OIE’s notification requirements, how such information is conveyed to members, and how the organization collaborates with the WHO and the FAO to obtain and respond to outbreak information from unofficial sources through networks such as GOARN and GLEWS.

The OIE engages in a range of activities to build global surveillance capacity, including funding and technical assistance for countries with inadequate ability to detect and report disease threats, according to Thiermann. He also notes that, in recognition of the important role of compensation in ensuring timely and accurate



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