larger ecological lens of invasive species, and consider intervention strategies and approaches aimed at preventing and mitigating the far-reaching consequences of biological invasions.

On December 16 and 17, 2008, the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s) Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a two-day public workshop in Washington, DC, on Globalization, Movement of Pathogens (and their hosts), and the revised IHRs. Through invited presentations and discussions, participants explored a variety of interrelated topics associated with global infectious disease emergence, detection, and surveillance including the historical role of human migration and mobility in pathogen and vector movements; the complex interrelationship of travel, trade, tourism, and infectious disease emergence; national and international biosecurity policies; and obstacles and opportunities for detecting and containing globalized pathogens, thereby reducing the potential burden of emerging infectious diseases.

Organization of the Workshop Summary

This workshop summary was prepared for the Forum membership in the name of the rapporteurs and includes a collection of individually authored papers and commentary. Sections of the workshop summary not specifically attributed to an individual reflect the views of the rapporteurs and not those of the Forum on Microbial Threats, its sponsors, or the Institute of Medicine. The contents of the unattributed sections are based on the presentations and discussions at the workshop.

The workshop summary is organized into chapters as a topic-by-topic description of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop. Its purpose is to present lessons from relevant experience, to delineate a range of pivotal issues and their respective problems, and to offer potential responses as discussed and described by the workshop participants.

Although this workshop summary provides an account of the individual presentations, it also reflects an important aspect of the Forum philosophy. The workshop functions as a dialogue among representatives from different sectors and allows them to present their beliefs about which areas may merit further attention. The reader should be aware, however, that the material presented herein expresses the views and opinions of the individuals participating in the workshop and not the deliberations and conclusions of a formally constituted IOM consensus study committee. These proceedings summarize only the statements of participants in the workshop and are not intended to be an exhaustive exploration of the subject matter or a representation of consensus evaluation.

Globalization: Processes, Patterns, and Impacts

The inexorable migration of the human species has profoundly influenced Earth’s ecology. As our ancestors wandered across the African continent, onward



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