stronger commitment on the part of the United States to development in Africa, the Middle East, and other developing countries, including increased admissions of permanent residents from these regions.

In his subsequent contribution, Gushulak, along with his colleague Douglas MacPherson, of McMaster University and Migration Health Consultants, Inc., presents a comprehensive history of migration-associated disease and disease control policies. The authors characterize “modern migration”—the mechanism that drives Miller’s “Age of Migration”—in terms of its departure from traditional migratory patterns, and explore the challenges it presents for global health, and particularly for the control of infectious diseases.

In order to “shift the paradigm” of disease control away from policies focused on geopolitical borders and individual infectious diseases, Gushulak and MacPherson introduce the concept of “population mobility” to replace traditional considerations of migration. “Considering mobility as a global health determinant provides a model upon which we can integrate disease management policies, processes for prevention, knowledge of disparate prevalence environments, and a rigorous health threat to risk assessment ability,” the authors write, and they suggest several approaches to the control of mobility-related disease to support this model.

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE1

Mark J. Miller, Ph.D.2

University of Delaware


Public health has been importantly influenced by human mobility patterns since time immemorial. A rich, but frequently overlooked, tradition of scholarship attests to the significance of understanding human mobility for comprehension of events involving plagues and spatial diffusion of illnesses (Diamond, 1997; McNeill, 1977). Many students of world politics and international relations have distinguished themselves by their neglect of health questions in explanations of wars and conquests (Koslowski, 2000). Nevertheless, no effort will be made here to reprise that literature. Rather, the focus will be upon sketching what Stephen Castles3 and I call The Age of Migration, the contemporary migratory epoch that

1

This essay builds on a paper prepared for the International Organization for Migration/Center for Migration Studies, Conference on International Migration and Development: Continuing the Dialogue—Legal and Policy Perspectives convened in New York City January 17-18, 2008. That paper was subsequently published in J. Chamie and L. Dall’Oglio, eds. 2008. International Migration and Development. Geneva: ILO and New York: CMS. Pp. 71-78.

2

Emma Smith Morris Professor.

3

Professor of Migration and Refugee Studies, and Director of the International Migration Institute at the University of Oxford.



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