The committee discussed each of the points in its statement of task (Appendix A). Although each question may not be explicitly addressed in this report, those discussions had a major impact on leading the committee to recommend a problem-focused approach. For example, the committee argues that focusing attention on solving practical problems will require, and in turn lead to, advances in fundamental understanding. Implications for infrastructure, education, and research culture are raised throughout the report, and suggestions are offered for positive approaches to implement change. It is the committee’s hope that the report presents a convincing vision of how federal agencies could more effectively leverage their investments in biological research and education to address complex problems and a compelling argument that this near-term investment will lead to substantial long-term benefits and a strong, competitive advantage for the United States.