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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY FISCAL YEAR 2009 Panel on Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory Assessments Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. SB3141-06-Z-0011, TO#6 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institute of Standards and Technology, an agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-14503-9 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-14503-1 Copies of this report are available from Laboratory Assessments Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences National Research Council 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2009 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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PANEL ON ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING JENNIE S. HWANG, H-Technologies Group, Inc., Chair DAVID K. BARTON, Independent Consultant, Hanover, New Hampshire DAVID E. BORTH, Motorola Corporation JONATHAN P. DOWLING, Louisiana State University MICHAEL ETTENBERG, DOLCE Technologies BRUCE GNADE, University of Texas at Dallas ANTHONY GUISEPPI-ELIE, Clemson University ROBERT HANSEN, R.C. Hansen, Inc. TATSUO ITOH, University of California, Los Angeles FRANZ X. KAERTNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology HERWIG KOGELNIK, Bell Laboratories, Alcatel-Lucent PAUL KWIAT, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign MICHAEL P. LILLY, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico BRUCE MONTGOMERY, Magplane Technology, Inc. RICHARD S. MULLER, University of California, Berkeley BRUCE NYMAN, Tyco Telecommunications ARUN G. PHADKE, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University ALEXANDER J. RIMBERG, Dartmouth College JEFFREY A. SQUIER, Colorado School of Mines YUAN TAUR, University of California, San Diego MADOO VARMA, Intel Corporation DANIEL S. WEILE, University of Delaware Staff JAMES P. McGEE, Director CY L. BUTNER, Senior Program Officer LIZA HAMILTON, Administrative Coordinator EVA LABRE, Senior Program Assistant iv

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Robert W. Bower, University of California, Davis (Emeritus), James P. Gordon, Consultant, Lucent Technologies, Robert Hellwarth, University of Southern California, Ivan Kaminow, University of California, Berkeley, Linda Katehi, University of California, Davis, and Dwight Streit, Northrop Grumman Space Technology. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Alton D. Slay, Warrenton, Virginia. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring panel and the institution. v

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Contents SUMMARY 1 1 THE CHARGE TO THE PANEL AND THE ASSESSMENT PROCESS 4 2 INTRODUCTION 6 Organization of This Report and Selection of the Panel, 6 Organizational Structure of the Laboratory, 6 3 ASSESSMENT OF THE DIVISIONS 9 Optoelectronics Division, 9 Semiconductor Electronics Division, 13 Quantum Electrical Metrology Division, 18 Electromagnetics Division, 24 4 EEEL RESPONSES TO CONCERNS FROM THE 2007 ASSESSMENT 28 Optoelectronics Division, 28 Semiconductor Electronics Division, 28 Quantum Electrical Metrology Division, 29 Electromagnetics Division, 29 5 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS AND CONCERNS 31 6 NEW THRUSTS OR NEW HIGH-IMPACT PROJECTS 33 Photovoltaics, 33 Bioelectronics, 33 Graphene-Based Quantum Conductance Standards, 34 Smart Grid System Initiative, 34 7 CONCLUSIONS 36 8 RECOMMENDATIONS 37 General, 37 Optoelectronics Division, 37 Semiconductor Electronics Division, 38 Quantum Electrical Metrology Division, 39 Electromagnetics Division, 39 vii

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