commander of Destroyer class warships. Upon retirement, Rear Admiral Pittenger came to Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), where he led the Marine Operations Division. While at WHOI, he oversaw the conversion of the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) vessels Knorr and Oceanus, the addition of R/V Atlantis, and the retirement of Atlantis II. RADM Pittenger has also worked closely with deep submergence vehicles, including the award of a grant to build a replacement for the Alvin manned submersible. RADM Pittenger served on the UNOLS Council from 1992 to 1998 and has been a member and vice-chair of NRC committees on naval research and acoustics. He earned his M.S. in physics, specializing in underwater acoustics, at the Naval Postgraduate School.


Francisco Chavez is a senior researcher in the Biological Oceanography Group at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI). His current research focuses on biology and chemistry of the ocean in relation to global change; how climate, ocean physics, marine chemistry, and ocean ecosystems co-vary on global to mesoscales; instrumentation and systems for long-term ocean observing; and satellite remote sensing. His current projects include studies in the equatorial Pacific, central California, and Peru. Dr. Chavez is the associate editor of Geophysical Research Letters, and is a member of the National Science Foundation (NSF) Geosciences Advisory Committee and the U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) time series oversight committee. Dr. Chavez received his Ph.D. in botany from Duke University in 1987.


Margo Edwards is a senior research scientist and director of the Hawaii Mapping Research Group with the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. Her current scientific research focuses on bathymetric and sidescan sonar mapping of the Arctic Basin and the use of high-resolution photographic and acoustic data to map the East Pacific Rise mid-ocean ridge. Dr. Edwards was recently appointed to the Scientific Ice Expedition Science Advisory Committee, a collaborative project between the U.S. Navy and civilian scientists for geological and environmental research in the Arctic Ocean. She served as chair of the UNOLS Arctic Icebreaker Coordinating Committee from 2004 to 2007 and on the NRC Committee on Designing an Arctic Observing Network. Dr. Edwards earned her Ph.D. in marine geology and geophysics from Columbia University in 1992.


Rana Fine is a professor of marine and atmospheric chemistry at the University of Miami’s Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science. Her current research objective is to better understand the role of the



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